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The volatile elements I, Te and Cs in the form of condensation-generated particles, were more widely dispersed into the far zone [I6].

Of course, this characterization oversimplifies the actual dispersion pattern. Areas of high contamination from Cs occurred throughout the far zone, depending primarilyon rainfall at the time the plume passed over.

The composition of the deposited radionuclides in these highly contaminated areas was relatively similar.

Some ratios of radionuclides in different districts of the near and far zones are given in Table 6.

The Central area is in the near zone, predominantly to the west and northwest of the reactor. Outside these three main contaminated areas there were manyareas where the Cs deposition densitywas in the range kBq m2.

Rather detailed surveys of the contamination of the entire European part of the former Soviet Union have been completed [I3, I6, I24].

A map of measured Cs deposition is presented in Figure VI. The areas affected by Cs contamination are listed in Table 7.

As can be seen, , km2 experienced a Cs deposition density greater than 37 kBq m2 1 Ci km2. The total quantity of Cs deposited as a result of the accident in the contaminated areas of the former Soviet Union, including in areas of lesser deposition, is estimated in Table 8 to be 43 PBq.

A Cs background of 24 kBq m2 attributable toresidual levels from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing from earlier years must be subtracted to obtain the total deposit attributable to the Chernobyl accident.

When this is done, the total Cs deposit from the accident is found to be approximately 40 PBq Table 8.

Dernovichi Savici Pirki Dovlyady The Gomel-Mogilev-Bryansk contamination area is centred km to the north-northeast of the reactor at the boundary of the Gomel and Mogilev regions of Belarus and of the Bryansk region of the Russian Federation.

In some areas contamination was comparable to that in the Central area; deposition densities even reached 5 MBq m2 in some villages of the Mogilev and Bryansk regions.

The Kaluga-Tula-Orel area is located km to the northeast of the reactor. Contamination there came from the same radioactive cloud that caused contamination in the Gomel-Mogilev-Bryansk area as a result of rainfall on April.

The Cs deposition density was, however, lower in this area, generally less than kBq m2. The Cs deposition was highest within the km-radius area surrounding the reactor, known as the km zone.

Deposition densities exceeded 1, kBq m2 40 Ci km2 in this zone and also in some areas of the near zone to the west and northwest of the reactor, in the Gomel, Kiev and Zhitomir regions Figure VII.

Surface ground deposition of strontium released in the Chernobyl accident [I1]. Surface ground deposition of plutonium and plutonium released in the Chernobyl accident at levels exceeding 3.

Estimated surface ground deposition in Belarus and western Russia of iodine released in the Chernobyl accident [B25, P19].

Surface ground deposition of caesium released in Europe after the Chernobyl accident [D13]. During the first weeks after the accident, most of the activity deposited on the ground consisted of short-lived radionuclides, of which I was the most important radiologically.

As indicated in paragraph 35, these maps are based on the limited number of measurements of I deposition density available in the former Soviet Union, and they use Cs measurements as a guide in areas where I was not measured.

These maps must be regarded with caution, as the ratio of the I to Cs deposition densities was found to vary in a relatively large range, at least in Belarus.

Interhemispheric transfer also occurred to a small extent through human activities, such as shipping of foods or materials to the southern hemisphere.

Therefore, only very low levels of radioactive materials originating from the Chernobyl accident have been present in the biosphere of the southern hemisphere, and the resulting doses have been negligible.

Deposition of 90Sr was mostly limited to the near zone of the accident. Only a few separate sites with 90Sr deposition density in the range kBq m2 were found in the Gomel-Mogilev-Bryansk area, i.

The environmental behaviour of deposited radionuclides depends on the physical and chemical characteristics of the radionuclide considered, on the type of fallout i.

Special attention will be devoted to I, Cs and 90Sr and their pathways of exposure to humans. Deposition can occur on the ground or on water surfaces.

The terrestrial environment will be considered first. Information on the deposition of plutonium isotopes is not as extensive because of difficulties in detecting these radionuclides.

The only area with plutonium levels exceeding 4 kBq m2 was located within the km zone Figure IX. In the Gomel-Mogilev-Bryansk area, the ,Pu deposition density ranged from 0.

At Korosten, located in Ukraine about km southwest of the Chernobyl power plant, where the Cs deposition density was about kBq m2, the ,Pu deposition density due to the Chernobyl accident derived from data in [H8] is found to be only about 0.

Terrestrial environment 2. Remainder of northern and southern hemisphere As shown in Table 5, there are also other areas, in Europe, where the Cs deposition density exceeded 37 kBq m2, notably, the three Scandinavian countries Finland, Norway and Sweden , Austria and Bulgaria.

Small amounts of radiocaesium and of radioiodine penetrated the lower stratosphere of the northern hemisphere during the first few days after the accident [J6, K43].

Subsequently, transfer of radiocaesium to the lower atmospheric layers of the southern hemisphere may have occurred as a result of interhemispheric air movements from the northern to the southern stratosphere, followed by subsidence in the troposphere [D11].

However, radioactive contamination was not detected in the southern hemisphere D. For short-lived radionuclides such as I, the main pathway of exposure of humans is the transfer of the amounts deposited on leafy vegetables that are consumed within a few days, or on pasture grass that is grazed by cows or goats, giving rise to the contamination of milk.

The amounts deposited on vegetation are retained with a half-time of about two weeks before removal to the ground surface and to the soil.

Long-term transfer of I from deposition on soil to dietary products that are consumed several weeks after the deposition has occurred need not be considered, because I has a physical half-life of only 8 days.

Radionuclides deposited on soil migrate downwards and are partially absorbed by plant roots, leading in turn to upward migration into the vegetation.

These processes should be considered for long-lived radionuclides, such as Cs and 90Sr. The rate and direction of the radionuclide migration into the soil-plant pathway are determined by a number of natural phenomena, including relief features, the type of plant, the structure and makeup of the soil, hydrological conditions and weather patterns, particularly at the time that deposition occurred.

The vertical migration of Cs and 90Sr in soil of different types of natural meadows has been rather slow, and the greater fraction of radionuclides is still contained in its upper layer cm.

The effective half-time of clearance from the root layer in meadows cm in mineral soils has been estimated to range from 10 to 25 years for Cs and to be 1.

For a given initial contamination of soil, the transfer from soil to plant varies with time as the radionuclide is removed from the root layer and as its availability in exchangeable form changes.

The Cs content in plants was maximum in , when the contamination was due to direct deposition on aerial surfaces.

In , Cs in plants was 36 times lower than in , as the contamination of the plants was then mainly due to root uptake.

Since , the transfer coefficients from deposition to plant have continued to decrease, although the rate of decrease has slowed: from to , the transfer coefficients of Cs decreased by 1.

Later on, ageing processes led to similar mobility values for Cs from the Chernobyl accident and from global fallout.

The variability of the transfer coefficient from deposition to pasture grass for Cs is indicated in Table 9 for natural meadows in the Polissya area of Ukraine [S40].

The type of soil and the water content both have an influence on the transfer coefficient, the values of which were found to range from 0.

The variability as a function of time after the accident in the Russian Federation has been studied and reported on by Shutov et al.

Contrary to Cs, it seems that the exchangeability of Sr does not keep decreasing with time after the accident and may even be increasing [B36, S41].

In the Russian Federation, no statistically significant change was found in the 90Sr transfer coefficient from deposition to grass during the first 4 to 5 years following the accident [S41].

This is attributable to two competing processes: a 90Sr conversion from a poorly soluble form, which characterized the fuel particles, to a soluble form, which is easily assimilated by plant roots, and b the vertical migration of 90Sr into deeper layers of soil, hindering its assimilation by vegetation [S41].

The contamination of milk, meat and potatoes usually accounts for the bulk of the dietary intake of Cs. However, for the residents of rural regions, mushrooms and berries from forests occupy an important place.

The decrease with time of the Cs concentrations in those foodstuffs has been extremely slow, with variations from one year to another depending on weather conditions [I22].

Aquatic environment Deposition of radioactive materials also occurred on water surfaces. Deposition on the surfaces of seas and oceans resulted in low levels of dose because the radioactive materials were rapidly diluted into very large volumes of water.

In rivers and small lakes, the radioactive contamination resulted mainly from erosion of the surface layers of soil in the watershed, followed by runoff in the water bodies.

In the km zone, where relatively high levels of ground deposition of 90Sr and Cs occurred, the largest surface water contaminant was found to be 90Sr, as Cs was strongly adsorbed by clay minerals [A15, M19].

Much of the 90Sr in water was found in dissolved form; low levels of plutonium isotopes and of Am were also measured in the rivers of the km zone [A15, M19].

The contribution of aquatic pathways to the dietary intake of Cs and 90Sr is usually quite small.

However, the Cs concentration in the muscle of predator fish, like perch or pike, may be quite high in lakes with long water retention times, as found in Scandinavia and in Russia [H16, K47, R21, T23].

For example, concentration of Cs in the water of lakes Kozhanyand Svyatoe located in severely contaminated part of the Bryansk region of Russia was still high in because of special hydrological conditions: Bq l1 of Cs and 0.

Concentration of Cs in the muscles of crucian Carassius auratus gibeio sampled in the lake Kozhany was in the range of kBq kg1 and in pike Esox lucius in the range kBq kg1 [K47, T23].

Activity of Cs in inhabitants of the village Kozhany located along the coast of lake Kozhany measured by whole-body counters in summer was 7.

Taking into account seasonal changes in the Cs whole-body activity, the average annual internal doses were estimated to be 0.

Also, the relative importance of the aquatic pathways, in comparison to terrestrial pathways, may be high in areas downstream of the reactor site where ground deposition was small.

Improper, unstable operation of the reactor allowed an uncontrollable power surge to occur, resulting in successive steam explosions that severely damaged the reactor building and completely destroyed the reactor.

It is worth noting, however, that the doses were estimated on the basis of environmental and thyroid or body measurements and that knowledge of the quantities released was not needed for that purpose.

The three main areas of contamination, defined as those with Cs deposition density greater than 37 kBq m2 1 Ci km2 , are in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine; they have been designated the Central, GomelMogilev-Bryansk and Kaluga-Tula-Orel areas.

The Central area is within about km of the reactor, predominantly to the west and northwest.

The Gomel-Mogilev-Bryansk contamination area is centred km to the northnortheast of the reactor at the boundary of the Gomel and Mogilev regions of Belarus and of the Bryansk region of the Russian Federation.

The Kaluga-Tula-Orel area is located in the Russian Federation, about km to the northeast of the reactor. All together, as shown in Table 7 and in Figure XI, territories with an area of approximately , km2 were contaminated in the former Soviet Union.

Outside the former Soviet Union, there were many areas in northern and eastern Europe with Cs deposition density in the range kBq m2.

These regions represent an area of 45, km2, or about one third of the contaminated areas found in the former Soviet Union.

For short-lived radionuclides such as I, the main pathway of exposure to humans is the transfer of amounts deposited on leafy vegetables that are consumed by humans within a few days, or on pasture grass that is grazed by cows or goats, giving rise to the contamination of milk.

For long-lived radionuclides such as Cs, the long-term transfer processes from soil to foods consumed several weeks or more after deposition need to be considered.

It is convenient to classify into three categories the populations who were exposed to radiation following the Chernobyl accident: a the workers involved in the accident, either during the emergency period or during the clean-up phase; b inhabitants of evacuated areas; and c inhabitants of contaminated areas who were not evacuated.

The available information on the doses received by the three categories of exposed populations will be presented and discussed in turn.

Doses from external irradiation and from internal irradiation will be presented separately. The external exposures due to gamma radiation were relatively uniform over all organs and tissues of the body, as their main contributors were TeI, I and BaLa for evacuees, Cs and Cs for inhabitants of contaminated areas who were not evacuated, and radionuclides emitting photons of moderatelyhigh energy for workers.

These external doses from gamma radiation have been expressed in terms of effective dose. With regard to internal irradiation, absorbed doses in the thyroid have been estimated for exposures to radioiodines and effective doses have been estimated for exposures to radiocaesiums.

Doses have in almost all cases been estimated by means of physical dosimetrytechniques. Biological indicators of dose has been mainly used, within days or weeks after the accident, to estimate doses received by the emergency workers, who received high doses from external irradiation and for whom dosemeters were either not operational nor available.

Unlike physical dosimetry, biological dosimetric methods are generally not applicable to doses below 0. Soon after the accident, biological dosimetry is usually based on the measurement of the frequency of unstable chromosome aberrations dicentric and centric rings.

By comparing the rate of dicentric chromosomes and centric rings with a standard dose-effect curve obtained in an experiment in vitro, it is possible to determine a radiation dose.

However, the use of dicentric as well as other aberrations of the unstable type for the purposes of biological dosimetry is not always possible, since the frequency of cells containing such aberrations declines in time after exposure.

For retrospective dosimetry long after the exposure, biological dosimetry can be a complement to physical dosimetry, but only techniques where radiation damage to the biological indicator is stable and persistent and not subject to biochemical, physiological or immunological turnover, repair or depletion are useful.

In that respect, the analysis of stable aberrations translocations , the frequency of which remains constant for a long time after exposure to radiation, is promising.

The probability of occurrence of stable translocations and unstable dicentrics aberrations after exposure is the same.

However, translocations are not subjected to selection during cell proliferation, in contrast to dicentrics. Fluorescence in situ hybridization FISH or Fast-FISH in conjunction with chromosome painting may be useful in retrospective dosimetry for several decades after exposure.

Other biological or biophysical techniques for measuring doses are electron spin resonance ESR or opticallystimulated luminescence OSL.

These techniques are used in retrospective dosimetry to measure the radiation damage accumulated in biological tissue such as bone, teeth, fingernails and hair.

Also, the gene mutation glycophorin A that is associated with blood cells may be used. Most of them were at the reactor site at the time of the accident or arrived at the plant during the few first hours.

The numbers of accident witnesses and emergency workers are listed in Table According to Table 10, on the morning of 26 April, about emergency workers were on the site of the Chernobyl power plant.

The workers involved in various ways in the accident can be divided into two groups: a those involved in emergency measures during the first day of the accident 26 April , who will be referred to as emergency workers in this Annex, and b those active in at the power station or in the zone surrounding it for the decontamination work, sarcophagus construction and other clean-up operations.

This second group of workers is referred to as recovery operation workers in this Annex, although the term liquidator gained common usage in the former Soviet Union.

The power plant personnel wore only film badges that could not register doses in excess of 20 mSv. All of these badges were overexposed.

The firemen had no dosimeters and no dosimetric control. Dose rates on the roof and in the rooms of the reactor block reached hundreds of gray per hour.

Measured exposure rates in the vicinity of the reactor at the time of the accident are shown in Figure XII.

Emergency workers Measured exposure rates in air on 26 April in the local area of the Chernobyl reactor.

The highest doses were received by the firemen and the personnel of the power station on the night of the accident. Some symptoms of acute radiation sickness were observed in workers.

Following clinical tests, an initial diagnosis of acute radiation sickness was made in of these persons. On further analysis of the clinical data, acute radiation sickness was confirmed later in in individuals.

The most important exposures were due to external irradiation relatively uniform whole-body gamma irradiation and beta irradiation of extensive body surfaces , as the intake of radionuclides through inhalation was relatively small except in two cases [U4].

Because all of the dosimeters worn by the workers were overexposed, they could not be used to estimate the gamma doses received via external irradiation.

The estimated ranges of doses for the emergency workers with confirmed acute radiation sickness are given in Table Forty-one of these patients received whole-body doses from external irradiation of less than 2.

Ninety-three patients received higher doses and had more severe acute radiation sickness: 50 persons with doses between 2.

The skin doses from beta exposures evaluated for eight patients with acute radiation sickness ranged from 10 to 30 times the dose from whole-body gamma radiation [B10].

Internal doses were determined from thyroid and wholebody measurements performed on the persons under treatment, as well as from urine analysis and from post-mortem analysis of organs and tissues.

For most of the patients, more than 20 radionuclides were detectable in the whole-body gamma measurements; however, apart from the radioiodines and radiocaesiums, the contribution to the internal doses from the other radionuclides was negligible [U4].

Internal doses evaluated for 23 persons who died of acute radiation sickness are shown in Table The lung and thyroid doses, calculated to the time of death, are estimated to have ranged from 0.

Some of the low thyroid doses may be due to the fact that stable iodine pills were distributed among the reactor staff less than half an hour after the beginning of the accident.

It is also speculated that the internal doses received by the emergency workers who were outdoors were much lower than those received by the emergency workers who stayed indoors.

For comparison purposes, the estimated external doses are also presented in Table The external doses, which range from 2. Internal dose reconstruction was also carried out for surviving emergency workers who were examined in Moscow; the results are presented in Table The average doses were estimated to vary from 36 mGy to bone marrow to mGy to bone surfaces, the maximum doses being about 10 times greater than the average doses.

Also, thyroid doses were estimated for the emergency workers admitted to Hospital 6 in Moscow within 34 weeks after the accident Table 15 ; most of the thyroid doses were less than 1 Gy, but three exceeded 20 Gy.

The thyroid doses due to internal exposures are estimated to be in the range from several percent to several hundred percent of the external whole-body doses.

The median value of the ratio of the thyroid to the whole-body dose was estimated to be 0. Recovery operation workers About , persons civilian and military have received special certificates confirming their status as liquidators, according to laws promulgated in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine.

Of those, about , were militaryservicemen [C7]. The principal tasks carried out by the recovery operation workers liquidators included decontamination of the reactor block, reactor site, and roads and construction of the sarcophagus MayNovember , a settlement for reactor personnel MayOctober , the town of Slavutich , , waste repositories , and dams and water filtration systems July-September , [K19].

During the entire period, radiation monitoring and securityoperations were also carried out. Of particular interest are the , recoveryoperation workers who were employed in the km zone in , as it is in this period that the highest doses were received; information concerning these workers is provided in Table About half of these persons were civilian and half were military servicemen brought in for the special and shortterm work.

The workers were all adults, mostly males aged years. The construction workers were those participating in building the sarcophagus around the damaged reactor.

Other workers included those involved in transport and security, scientists and medical staff. The distributions of the external doses for the categories of workers listed in Table 16, as well as for the emergency workers and accident witnesses, are shown in Table The remainder of the recovery operation workers about , , who generally received lower doses, includes those who worked inside the km zone in a small number of workers are still involved , those who decontaminated areas outside the km zone, and other categories of people.

In a state registry of persons exposed to radiation was established at Obninsk. This included not only recovery operation workers but evacuees and residents of contaminated areas as well.

The registry existed until the end of Starting in , national registries of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine replaced the all-union registry.

The number of recovery operation workers in the national registries of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine is listed in Table Some , workers from these countries were involved in the years To this must be added the 17, recovery operation workers recorded in the registries of the Baltic countries, including 7, from Lithuania, 5, from Latvia and 4, from Estonia [K13].

More detailed information on the registries is provided in Chapter IV. This number is likely to increase in the future, as some organizations may not have provided all their information to the central registries; in addition, individuals may on their own initiative ask to be registered in order to benefit from certain privileges.

However, the number of recoveryoperation workers recorded in the national registries is well below the figure of about ,, which corresponds to the number of people who have received special certificates confirming their status as liquidators.

The doses to the recovery operation workers who participated in mitigation activities within two months after the accident are not known with much certainty.

Attempts to establish a dosimetric service were inadequate until the middle of June. TLDs and condenser-type dosimeters that had been secured by 28 April were insufficient in number and, in the case of the latter type, largely nonfunctioning, and records were lost when the dosimetric service was transferred from temporary to more permanent quarters.

In June, TLD dosimeters were available in large numbers, and a databank of recorded values could be established. From July onwards, individual dose monitoring was performed for all non-military workers, using either TLDs or film dosimeters.

The dose limits for external irradiation varied with time and with the category of personnel.

According to national regulations established before the accident [M1], for civilian workers, during , the dose limit, 0.

The maximum dose allowed during the year was, therefore, 0. In , the annual dose limits for civilian personnel were lowered to 0.

However, a dose of up to 0. In , the annual dose limit was set at 0. From onwards, the annual dose limit was set at 0.

For military workers, a dose limit of 0. From onwards, the dose limits were the same for military and civilian personnel.

Methods b and c were used for the civilian workers before June , when the number of individual dosimeters was insufficient, and for the majority of the military personnel at any time.

For example, effective doses from external irradiation have been reconstructed by physical means for the staff of the reactor, as well as for the workers who had been detailed to assist them, exposed from 26 April to 5 May [K19].

Personnel location record cards filled in by workers were analysed by experts who had reliable information on the radiation conditions and who had personally participated in ensuring the radiation safety of all operations following the accident.

Using this method, two values were determined: the maximum possible dose and the expected dose. The maximum possible effective doses ranged from less than 0.

It seems that in most cases the maximum possible effective doses are those that were officially recorded. The main sources of uncertainty associated with the different methods of dose estimation were as follows: a individual dosimetry: incorrect use of the dosimeters inadvertent or deliberate actions leading to either overexposure or underexposure of the dosimeters ; b group dosimetry: very high gradient of exposure rate at the working places at the reactor site; and c time-and-motion studies: deficiencies in data on itineraries and time spent at the various working places, combined with uncertainties in the exposure rates.

The registry data show that the annual averages of the officially recorded doses decreased from year to year, being about mSv in , mSv in , 30 mSv in , and 15 mSv in [I34, S14, T9].

It is, however, difficult to assess the validity of the results that have been reported for a variety of reasons, including a the fact that different dosimeters were used by different organizations without any intercalibration; b the high number of recorded doses very close to the dose limit; and c the high number of rounded values such as 0.

However, the doses do not seem to have been systematicallyoverestimated, because biological dosimetry performed on limited numbers of workers produced results that are also very uncertain but compatible nonetheless with the physical dose estimates [L18].

Using the numbers presented in Table 18, the collective effective dose is estimated to be about 40, man Sv. A particular group of workers who may have been exposed to substantial doses from external irradiation is made up of the 1, helicopter pilots who were involved in mitigation activities at the power plant in the first three months after the accident [U15].

The doses to pilots were estimated using either personal dosimeters or, less reliably, calculations in which the damaged reactor was treated as a collimated point source of radiation [U15].

The doses obtained by calculation were checked against the results derived from the personal dosimeters for about pilots.

That comparison showed a discrepancy of a less 0. The simplification used to describe the origin of the radiation emitted from the damaged reactor is the main source of uncertainty in the assessment of the doses received by the helicopter pilots.

The average dose estimates are 0. Another group of workers that may have been exposed to substantial doses from external irradiation is the workers from the Kurchatov Institute, a group that includes those who were assigned special tasks inside the damaged unit 4 before and after the construction of the sarcophagus [S36].

A number of nuclear research specialists worked in high-radiation areas of the sarcophagus, without formal recording of doses, on their own personal initiative, and were exposed to annual levels greater than the dose limit of 0.

Doses for this group of 29 persons have been estimated using electron spin resonance analysis of tooth enamel as well as stable and unstable chromosome aberration techniques [S42, S47].

It was found that 14 of those 29 persons received doses lower than 0. Additional analyses by means of the FISH technique for three of those nuclear research specialists resulted in doses of 0.

Biological dosimetry. Chromosome aberration levels among Chernobyl recovery operation workers were analysed in a number of additional studies.

A good correlation was found, however, for group rather than individual doses. Blood samples of 52 Chernobyl recovery operation workers were analysed by FISH [S32] and simultaneously by conventional chromosome analysis.

Based on FISH measurements, individual biodosimetry estimates between 0. Pooled data for the total group of 52 workers provided an average estimate of 0.

For a group of 34 workers with documented doses, the mean dose estimate of 0. Comparison between the conventional scoring and FISH analyses showed no significant difference.

In a study of Estonian workers, Littlefield et al. In conclusion, FISH does not currently appear to be a sufficiently sensitive and specific technique to allow the estimation of individual doses in the low dose range received by the majority of recovery operation workers.

Lazutka et al. When transformed data were analysed by analysis of variance, alcohol abuse made a significant contribution to total aberrations, chromatid breaks, and chromatid exchanges.

Smoking was associated with frequency of chromatid exchanges, and age was significantly associated with rates of chromatid exchanges and chromosome exchanges [L31].

In another study [S37], the frequency of chromosomal aberrations was evaluated in more than recovery operation workers.

Blood samples were taken from several days to three months after exposure to radiation. The mean frequencies of aberrations for different groups of workers were associated with doses varying from 0.

Glycophorin A assay GPA was used as a possible biological dosimeter on subjects from Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania with recorded physical dose estimates [B17].

Although a slight increase in the frequency of erythrocytes with loss of the GPA allele was seen among these subjects compared to control subjects from the same countries, this difference was not significant.

The pooled results indicate that the average exposures of these workers were unlikely to greatly exceed mGy, the approximate minimum radiation dose detectable by this assay.

In addition to effective doses from external gamma irradiation, recovery operation workers received skin doses from external beta irradiation as well as thyroid and effective doses from internal irradiation.

The dose to unprotected skin from beta exposures is estimated to have been several times greater than the gamma dose. Because of the abundance of I and of shorterlived radioiodines in the environment of the reactor during the accident, the recovery operation workers who were on the site during the first few weeks after the accident may have received substantial thyroid doses from internal irradiation.

Information on the thyroid doses is very limited and imprecise. From 30 April through 7 May , in vivo thyroid measurements were carried out on more than recovery operation workers.

These in vivo measurements, which are measurements of the radiation emitted by the thyroid using detectors held or placed against the neck, were used to derive the I thyroidal contents at the time of measurement.

The thyroid doses were derived from the measured I thyroidal contents, using assumptions on the dynamics of intake of I and short-lived radioiodines and on the possible influence of stable iodine prophylaxis.

The average thyroid dose estimate for those workers is about 0. The thyroid doses from internal irradiation are estimated to range from several percent to several hundred percent of the effective doses from external irradiation.

The median value of the ratio of the internal thyroid dose to the external effective dose was estimated to be 0.

It is important to note that information on the influence of stable iodine prophylaxis is limited, as iodine prophylaxis among the recoveryoperation workers was not mandatory nor was it proposed to everybody.

The decision to take stable iodine for prophylactic reasons was made by the individual worker or by the supervisor.

The results of interviews of workers including emergencyworkers and recoveryoperation workers who arrived at the plant at the ealy stage of the accident concerning the time when theytook stable iodine for prophylaxis is presented in Table The internal doses resulting from intakes of radionuclides such as 90Sr, Cs, Cs, ,Pu, and others have been assessed for about recovery operation workers who were monitored from April to April [K2, K8, P13, S11].

The majority of them were staff of the power plant who took part in the recovery work starting on days 3 and 4 after the accident.

The dose assessment was based on the analysis of whole-body measurements and of radionuclide concentrations in excreta. The average value of the effective dose committed by the radionuclide intakes was estimated on the basis of ICRP Publication 30 [I17] to be 85 mSv.

The part of the effective dose received between June and September was estimated to have been about 30 mSv.

The evacuation of the nearby residents was carried out at different times after the accident on the basis of the radiation situation and of the distance of the populated areas from the damaged reactor.

The initial evacuations were from the town of Pripyat, located just 3 km from the damaged reactor, then from the km zone and from the km zone around the reactor located mostly in Ukraine but also in Belarus.

In addition, a number of villages in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine beyond the km-radius circle centred on the reactor were also evacuated in In Ukraine, the residents of Pripyat 49, persons and of the nearest railway station, Yanov persons , 3 km from the reactor, were the first to be evacuated.

On the evening of 26 April , the radiation exposures in Pripyat were not considered too alarming. Exposure-rate readings were in the range mR h1 [I1], but with the seriousness of the accident becoming evident, the decision to evacuate the residents of the town was taken at During the night, arrangements were made for nearly 1, buses that would be needed to transport the residents.

Around noon on 27 April the evacuation order was broadcast to the people, and the evacuation began at and finished at The over 40, evacuees were taken in by families who lived in settlements in the surrounding districts, especially Polesskoe district of Ukraine.

Most people stayed with these families until August After that they were resettled to apartments in Kiev [I1].

Also in Ukraine, the evacuation of the residents from the southern part of the km zone 10, persons was carried out from 30 April through 3 May.

On the basis of exposure-rate criteria mR h1 on 10 May , 2, persons who resided outside the km zone in the Kiev and in Zhitomir regions were evacuated from 14 May to 16 August.

The last Ukrainian settlement that was evacuated was Bober, with inhabitants, in September Thus, 91, residents from 75 settlements were evacuated in Ukraine in [S20, U14].

The evacuation in Belarus was conducted in three phases. During the first phase 27 May , 11, residents of 51 villages were evacuated from the km zone.

In a second phase June , 6, residents of 28 villages beyond the km zone were evacuated. In the third phase August and September , 7, residents of 29 villages, also beyond the km zone, were evacuated.

In villages evacuated during the second and third phases, the exposure rate was from 5 to 20 mR h1, corresponding to a projected annual effective dose 26 April to 25 April of more than mSv.

The total number of Belarusian residents who were evacuated in was 24, from rural settlements. In the Russian Federation, only residents from four settlements in the Krasnaya Gora district of Bryansk region were evacuated, mainly to other settlements of that district.

In summary, by the autumn of , about , residents from settlements had been evacuated Table By the same time, about 60, cattle and other agricultural animals had been relocated from the evacuated zone.

It is believed that the figure of , was a rough preliminary estimate that was not substantiated. The extent of the exclusion zone was based on two principles: geographical and radiological dose criteria.

A detailed study of the radiation situation carried out in the exclusion zone led to the resettlement of residents of two Ukrainian villages Cheremoshnya and Nivetskoe in June In addition, it was recommended that the residents of 27 other villages might move back after the sarcophagus was constructed 15 settlements in Ukraine and 12 settlements in Belarus.

In accordance with these recommendations, 1, residents of 12 villages in Belarus had been resettled by December However, the Ukrainian authorities considered that resettling the residents inside the exclusion zone was economically and socially undesirable.

Nevertheless, some people, mainly elderly, resettled by themselves to 15 settlements inside the exclusion zone.

The population of those 15 settlements was estimated to be about by spring ; about 1, by September ; and about 1, in In , the number is estimated to be The decrease with time is due to migration rather than death.

Doses from external exposure The effective doses from external exposure for the persons evacuated from the Ukrainian part of the km zone were estimated from a measurements of exposure rates performed every hour at about 30 sites in Pripyat and daily at about 80 sites in the km zone and b responses to questionnaires from about 35, evacuees from Pripyat and about settlements; the questionnaires asked for information on their locations, types of houses, and activities at the time of the accident and during a few days thereafter [L9, M2, R10].

Individual effective doses were reconstructed in this way for about 30, evacuees from the city of Pripyat and settlements in the km zone.

The average effective dose from external irradiation for this cohort was estimated to be 17 mSv, with individual values varying from 0. This value is concordant with the absorbed dose of 20 mGy estimated for the evacuees of Pripyat using Electron Spin Resonance ESR measurements of sugar and exposure rate calculations [N1].

The collective effective dose for the approximately 90, evacuees from the Ukrainian part of the km zone was assessed to be 1, man Sv [R12].

The effective doses and skin doses from external irradiation received by the evacuees from Belarusian territory were estimated on the basis of a 3, measurements of exposure rates performed in the settlements that were evacuated; b spectrometric measurements, carried out mainly in May and June , of the gamma radiation emitted by radionuclides deposited on the ground; c measurements of the Cs ground deposition density for each settlement from the Belarusian data bank [D4]; and d responses of about 17, evacuees from the territory inside the km zone and from adjoining areas.

It was assessed that the doses to evacuees from external irradiation were mainly due to radionuclides deposited on the ground, because external irradiation during the passage of the radioactive cloud played a minor role.

The method developed to assess the doses included the reconstruction of the radionuclide composition of the deposition in each of the evacuated settlements in Belarusian territory and the estimation of the contribution to the dose from each radionuclide [S29].

The distribution of individual doses received by the residents of a given settlement was found to be appropriately described by a log-normal function with a geometric standard deviation of about 1.

The highest average effective doses, about mSv, were estimated to be received by the population of two villages located inside the km zone in Khoyniki district: Chamkov and Masany.

The main source of uncertainty in the estimation of the average effective doses from external irradiation for the Belarusian evacuees is the assessment of the activity ratios of Te and I to Cs in the deposition.

The collective effective dose from external irradiation for the 24, evacuees from Belarus is assessed to be man Sv.

The average skin doses from beta and gamma radiation are estimated to be 34 times greater than the effective doses and to range up to 1, mGy.

The uncertainty of the average skin doses in a given settlement is estimated to be characterized by a geometric standard deviation of about 1.

Doses from internal exposure The thyroid doses received from intake of I by the evacuees from Pripyat were derived from a 4, measurements of radioiodine content of their thyroid glands made, on average, 23 days after the accident and b responses to questionnaires by 10, evacuees on their locations and consumption of stable iodine [G8].

Average individual and collective thyroid doses to the evacuees from Pripyat are shown in Table The thyroid doses from I, which were for the most part due to inhalation, were highest for year-old children about 1.

The main factor influencing the individual dose was found to be the distance of the residence from the reactor [G8]. Thyroid doses from intake of I to other evacuees from the km zone were also estimated on the basis of measurements of thyroid contents in 10, persons [L12, R10].

When dose estimates obtained for the evacuees from Pripyat are compared with those for the evacuees from other settlements of the km zone Table 21 , the doses to the latter are seen to be somewhat higher than those to the evacuees from Pripyat, especially for adults.

This may be because Pripyat was evacuated before the rest of the km zone, giving the population of the km zone more time to consume foodstuffs contaminated with I.

Using for the settlements of the km zone the same age structure as that for Pripyat in Table 21, the collective thyroid dose from I intake for the entire population of evacuees from Ukraine is tentatively estimated to be about 30, man Gy.

Evaluation of thyroid doses to the evacuated population of Belarus is presented in Table The collective thyroid dose estimate for this population is 25, man Gy.

Inhalation of short-lived radioiodines and of Te contributed somewhat to the thyroid dose received by evacuees. According to Goulko et al.

This maximal value was obtained by taking into account an inhalation for one hour occurring one hour after the accident.

Khrouch et al. Internal effective doses from Cs were estimated for the Belarusian evacuees on the basis of measurements of gamma-emitting radionuclides in foodstuffs and of whole-body measurements of Cs content, in addition to the environmental measurements already mentioned in Section II.

The average internal exposure from radiocaesium in milk for the evacuated population is estimated to be 1. The main sources of uncertainty in the assessment of the internal doses from Cs are considered to be the dates when the cows were first put on pasture in each settlement and the actual countermeasures that were applied in the settlement.

The collective effective dose for the 24, Belarusian evacuees from internal exposure was assessed to be man Sv [S29].

Residual and averted collective doses Estimates of collective doses for the populations that were evacuated in from the contaminated areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine are summarized in Table The collective effective and thyroid doses are estimated to be about 3, man Sv and 55, man Gy, respectively.

Most of the collective doses were received by the populations of Belarus and Ukraine. The evacuation of the residents of Pripyat 28 April and of the rural settlements inside the km zone beginning of May prevented the potential occurrence of deterministic effects and resulted in collective doses substantially lower than would have been experienced if there had been no evacuation.

A comparison of the external effective doses for the Belarusians, calculated with and without evacuation from the km zone, is presented in Table 24 [S24].

Because of the evacuation, the number of inhabitants with doses greater than 0. A similar assessment of averted collective dose for the evacuated Ukrainian inhabitants led to a value of about 6, man Sv.

Therefore, the averted collective dose from external exposure for the , persons evacuated in is estimated to be 8, man Sv.

The thyroid collective dose was also reduced to some extent. It is estimated that a single intake reduced the expected thyroid dose by a factor of 1.

An upper estimate of the averted collective thyroid dose for the , evacuees is about 15, man Gy [A10]. Areas contaminated by the Chernobyl accident have been defined with reference to the background level of Cs deposition caused by atmospheric weapons tests, which when corrected for radioactive decay to , is about 24 kBq m2 0.

Considering variations about this level, it is usual to specify the level of 37 kBq m2 1 Ci km 2 as the area affected by the Chernobyl accident.

Many people continued to live in the contaminated territories surrounding the Chernobyl reactor, although efforts were made to limit their doses.

Areas of Cs deposition density greater than kBq m2 15 Ci km2 were designated as areas of strict control. Within these areas, radiation monitoring and preventive measures were taken that have been generally successful in maintaining annual effective doses within 5 mSv.

Initially, the areas of strict control included settlements and a population of , in an area of 10, km2 [I3, I4]. The sizes and populations of the areas of strict control within Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine are given in Table Those population numbers applied to the first few years following the accident.

Because of extensive migration out of the most contaminated areas and into less contaminated areas, the current population in the areas of strict control is much lower in Belarus and Ukraine and somewhat lower in the Russian Federation.

In , the number of people living in the areas of strict control was about , [K23, R11]. The distribution of the population residing in contaminated areas in according to Cs deposition density interval is provided in Table The total population is about 5 million and is distributed almost equally among the three countries.

The most important pathways of exposure of humans were found to be the ingestion of milk and other foodstuffs contaminated with I, Cs and Cs and external exposure from radioactive deposits of short-lived radionuclides Te, I, Ba, Ru, Ce, etc.

In the first few months, because of the significant release of the short-lived I, the thyroid was the most exposed organ.

The main route of exposure for thyroid dose was the pasture-cow-milk pathway, with a secondary component from inhalation.

Hundreds of thousands of measurements of radioiodine contents in the thyroids of people were conducted in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine to assess the importance of the thyroid doses.

During the first year after the accident, doses from external irradiation in areas close to the reactor arose primarily from the ground deposition of radionuclides with half-lives of one year or less.

In more distant areas, the radiocaesiums became the greatest contributors to the dose from external irradiation only one month after the accident.

In all kinds of the fractions water-soluble polysaccharides complexes and pectin substances are prevailing.

The maximum quantity of water-soluble polysaccharides complexes is found in the leaves of Pulmonaria angustifolia L.

Qualitative and quantitative monosaccharide composition of polysaccharide complexes of the investigated plants has been studied.

As a result of the conducted research the sources of polyphenolic compounds and polysaccharides with versatile biological activity are offered: expectorant, diuretic, antiinflammatory and others.

Bubenchicova Yu. The existing SD contains raw material standardization only on such indicators as a moisture, aches, the maintenance of impurity, but the methods of qualitative and quantitative definition of the basic groups of biologically active substances are absent, so it does not allow to estimate objective of the quality of raw material.

Therefore we have carried out research for the purpose of system engineering of the estimation of quality of medicinal raw material. The purpose of our research was working out techniques of standardization of medicinal raw material Chamomilla, Salvia, Potentilla, Viola , with the subsequent inclusion in SD, and also working out SD.

For qualitative detection of biologically active substances in investigated species we used the method of chromatography in a thin layer of a sorbent.

As a result we developed the techniques of qualitative detection of biologically active substances, such as flavonoids in the herb of Violet threecoloured, Violet field, the flowers of Chamomile and tannin substances in the rhizomes of Tormentil.

The flavonoid substances are one of groups of active substances of flowers Chamomile, herb of a Violet, leaves of a Sage.

For the quantitative estimation of the contents of the sum of flavonoids we used the differential spectrophotometric method based on the reaction of complex formation with aluminum chloride solution.

For the isolation of flavonoids extraction was attained till equilibrium. It was established that the maximum yield of flavonoids is reached in 45 minutes for the Violet herb, the flowers of Chamomile, the Sage leaves.

The sum definition of flavonoids was conducted to areas of nanometers which is removed for enouph from the spectrum of absorption of accompanying phenolic and other organic substances that are contained in extracts of raw material.

As a part of flavonoids in the studied plants the derivates of quercetin, kaempferol as mono- and biosids are contained, therefore as the standard sample we used the samples of rutin, cynaroside.

For the standardization of the rhizomes of Tormentil the technique of quantitative definition of the sum of tannins was developed; it is based on the ability of sedimentation of tannins by salts of heavy metals.

We studied the stages of the extraction of the sum of polysaccharides and the sedimentation conditions.

Our research has allowed us to define the optimum conditions of extraction and sedimentation of water-soluble polysaccharide complexes.

Thus, on this basic of the conducted research the techniques of qualitative detection and quantitative definition of the basic group of biologically active substances which are included in modern SD were developed.

Erst seit knapp 10 Jahren erwachte neues Interesse am Vitamin D. Chuprikov I. Tarschinov A. Dsjuba V. Mischiev A. Nikolajev A. Kolodashnaja E.

Die wichtigsten Behandlungsmethoden sind die Amphetamin-Derivaten und Thymoleptika. Die Kinder vertragen solche Behandlung nicht immer gut, manchmal gibt es Nebenwirkungen.

Tarschinov verwendet. Insgesamt konnte die Prozedur von 30 bis 60 Minuten dauern. Als beste Beruhigungsmethode erwies sich, dass, nach unserer Bitte, die Mutter sich neben dem Kind auf pneumatische Manschetten hinlegt.

Bei Schulkindern sind die Hausaufgabenleistungen gestiegen, das Benehmen in der Schule mehr geordnet wurde. Wiederholte Behandlungskursen kann man einmal pro drei bzw.

Chuprikov N. Vassilevskaja B. Popovskij A. Duschka M. Sorokin N. Markanov S. Keljuschok M. Die Zahl von Schwimmprozeduren mit Delphinen schwank von 5 bis Bei manchen Kindern wurde die erste Begegnung mit Delphinen von Angst, Weinen und dem Wunsch, aus dem Schwimmbad wegzulaufen, und auf das Spiel zu verzichten, wahrgenommen.

Besonders krass wiesen dies die Kinder mit Autismus auf. Gleichzeitig wurden der Mittags- und Nachtschlaf besser geworden, Appetit hat sich auch verbessert.

Dies ist das wichtigste Argument zu Gunsten von Weiterexistenz und Weiterentwicklung der Delphintherapie.

Angelegenheiten der Delphintherapie werden im Delphinarium Odessa im April diskutieren werden, da dort die Internationale Konferenz stattfinden wird.

The disease is considered as an attempt of the organism to restore the disturbed balance. The activation of own regeneration mechanisms is in the base of health recovery principle.

For this the natural therapeutic methods are used: endoecological rehabilitation program, visceral massage, immunomodulating, antioxidant therapy, psychotherapy, hirudotherapy, phytotherapy, osteopathy, homeopathy, organotherapy, isopathic vaccine-like therapy, antihomotoxicology etc.

The problem of treatment of malignant neoplasms remains urgent today in spite of all successes of modern medicine. And what is more, 90 percent of the patients suffering from tumors die because of complications of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, surgical treatment.

As to its urgency, the development of methods for prevention of complications in the treatment of tumor diseases occupies one of the first places.

The age varied from 20 to 92 years. Eighty percent of the patients had the IV stage of disease with disseminated metastases, 20 percent of subjects had the III stage.

All patients received special treatment of tumors for the long time, one third of the patients was operated 28 Programm Abstracts earlier.

All patients showed pronounced symptoms of intoxication syndrome. The base of the administered treatment is formed by endoecological rehabilitation program, the main stage of which is hyperthermic intestinal dialysis method, patented by Ph.

Elena Donchenko, patent No. The effectiveness of the treatment was expressed in disappearance of symptoms of intoxication syndrome, resolution of remote metastases in the soft tissues during one month and recovery: disappearance of indications of tumor growth in 71 percent of cases.

Duration of the treatment is months. Duration of follow-up of the patients is from 8 months to 10 years. The effectiveness of the suggested approach is evidence of the need of further work in this direction, and safety, absence of side effects, intolerance make it possible to recommend this technology for more wide use.

Dorochov J. Cryotherapy can be classified on the basis of its clinical effect and as a function of the temperature parameters which affect the impact of the cold factor on tissue.

Cryotherapy: 1. Regenerative, 2. Destructive, 3. The aim of this type of cryotherapy is to bring about regeneration and functional reactivation at the treatment site.

Regenerative cryotherapy causes a reaction in the organism which is linked to local tissue irritation and manifests itself in an elimination of the pathogenic factors, regeneration of tissue, and restoration of functional competence.

Monitoring of the cooling parameters in the tissues is a very important point during regenerative cryotherapy since the therapeutic effect is directly linked to these parameters.

It can be employed to: 1. These include systemic and rheumatoid diseases of the heart i. If everyone but especially children would undergo prophylactic treatment of the lymphoid tissue of the tonsils, pharynx and nasal mucosa using the method of regenerative cryotherapy, we would observe the following positive effects especially in children : - improvement of the protective functions of the organism - stimulation of the immune system.

We can assume, moreover, that the general risk of contracting systemic, rheumatoid, infectious allergic and oncological diseases, immune deficiency states, snoring and sleep apnoea syndrome - would be distinctly reduced.

Monitoring of the cooling parameters is an important point to be observed during regenerative cryotherapy since achievement of the desired therapeutic effect depends directly on these parameters.

On the basis of my extensive experience with cryotherapy, I have designed and patented German Patent Office in Munich a mobile cryotherapy unit suitable for use in medical practices.

With the aid of this unit, it is possible to keep tissue cooling under control, especially in the ears, nose and throat regions.

With its regenerative effects, cryotherapy opens up vistas for an alternative direction in medicine, namely regenerative medicine.

Asfendijarov, Almaty, Kazakhstan Objective of this research was studying the condition of lipid peroxygenation LP in animals exposed to various concentrations of uranium ore dust DUO.

The materials and research methods Experiments were conducted in nonlinear rats. Inhalational influence by uranium ore dust was carried out in vitro, in special exposure chambers UIZ Experimental animals were divided into two testing groups.

Controlling for each testing group were the animals which were kept in identical exposure chambers, but were not exposed to DUO.

DUO inhalation was carried out during 5 days a week, for 4 hours per day continuously throughout days. The condition of the LP was estimated according to concentration of malondialdehyde MDA and superoxide dismutase SOD in lungs after 1, 2, 3, and 4 months from the beginning of the research.

Research results Results of the conducted series of research showed that at DUO influence on animals in a dose of 5 MCL, the level of MDA formation after 1 month from the influence beginning increased in comparison with the control group by During the next 2 months signs of MDA accumulation in lungs remain, but its accumulation was lower than on the 30th day of the observation.

Similar to the previous series of the observation, the steady effect of increase in MDA formation occurs after 4 months from the beginning of influences and specifies that the time threshold of priming in 3 and 4 months of influences is critical.

The main mechanism of protection of an organism from free radicals is enzyme of SOD. At that the expressiveness of this indicator depended on duration of influence of DUO.

At the tested animals decrease in activity of enzyme in all terms of experiment was observed, but the most considerable it was by the end 4 months of observation on Thus, the conducted researches testify that influence by the dust of uranium ore leads to an exhaustion of antioxidant systems, especially aggravated upon duration of the exposure.

Filimonova N. The modern psychosomatic medicine developed dramatically in the latest fifty years is not conceivable without psychoanalysis.

It owes psychoanalysis the stimulus for systematical study of psychosomatic interrelations in the disease process, a number of fundamental conceptions for theory and practice, which still remain the postulate and the ground of psychosomatics.

The available literature on psychoanalytical psychosomatics does not provide summarized systematized investigations of theoretical conceptions of psychoanalytical psychosomatics.

Therefore, the absence of systematical investigations in this field and importance of the problem for psychoanalytical psychotherapy determined the theme of the present work.

Innovation of the research. The present work is a first attempt so far to summarize rather few publications of domestic and foreign authors on psychosomatics.

Object of the research is a complex of theoretical aspects of psychoanalytical psychosmatics. The aim of the research is assessment of different psychoanalytical conceptions of psychoanalytical psychosomatics.

The following tasks were put forward: - To trace down the main directions and approaches of domestic and foreign authors to the problem of psychosomatics and to compare them on the basis of historical consideration; - To revise psychoanalytic theories of psychosomatics by S.

Freud; - To revise psychosomatic theories and models of S. Metodological postulates of the work are theories and conceptions of leading psychoanalytics: S.

Freud, F. Alexander, G. Ammon, O. Kernberg, H. Freyberger and others; and also leading foreign and domestic psychiatrists: V.

Broitigam, P. Kristian, M. Rad, B. Luban-Plozza, V. Krieger, K. Pederak-Hoffman, V. Podkorytov, A.

Smulevich, V. Gindikin, Ya. Obuhov and others. Methods of the research are theoretical study, comparison, systematization of classical and modern psychoanalytical and medical literature.

Practical significance of the work. And today it has the right to become a fundamental science dealing complexly with etiopathic processes, which occur in the patient and hence the treatment should be multifaceted, with consideration of pathogenesis and aetiology of the disease and individual peculiarities of the patient.

This approach for assessment and analysis of analytic conceptions and modern theories enabled to come to an important statement that psychosomatic diseases are determined by a fixation in the preoedipal stage of development with predomination of borderline level of the development of the psyche.

Galimzyanov V. Vasilkova A. At present we observe the growth of morbidity and expansion of its territorial borders.

The treatment of such patients must be complex. The analysis of a complex therapy showed a higher effectiveness when the treatment was started at early stages.

The etiotropic therapy implies an intake of Tetracycline antibiotics in advisable doses within three days after the elevated temperature was lowered.

The pathogenetic therapy is aimed at reducing intoxication and its manifestations. In case of an expressed hemorrhagic syndrome and presence of thrombocytopenia the preparations, such as ascorutin, vicasol and ascorbic acid should be indicated.

A symptomatic therapy is indicated to all patients to relieve pain, improve sleep, correct hemodynamics.

Doxycycline is the most recommended medication for initial treatment of AFR in medium and severe cases.

Clinical experimental data of AFR pathogenetic study show the T-lymphocyte deficit, immune status depression, interferron, in conditions of hyperthermia.

In this connection during the last years we observe constant optimization of standard doxicyclintherapy in patients with ARF. In clinical practice of ARF treatment the effectiveness of interferon was demonstrated in combination with doxycycline and complexly with immunotropic preparations and combination of standard treatment 33 with inductors of interferon.

The combined action of doxycycline and interferon preparations resulted in restoration of normal homeostasis.

Clinically, diminishing of prolonged ARF symptoms such as weakness, myalgia, arthralgia, tachycardia, eczantema was manifested, and consequently, reduction of disease duration and a shorter hospitalization of such patients was achieved.

Cycloferron was used by 0,3 g on 1,2,4,6,8 days once a day. In the result of indicated combined therapy there were discovered that the usage of complex therapy of ARF of interferron inductors with doxycycline may shorten the duration of clinical symptoms of this disease: fever, intoxication symptoms, may facilitate a sooner resolution of rash.

Such therapy leads to normalization of indicators of humoral-cellular immunity, phagocytosis, increases the concentration of immunoglobulins.

Investigation of immune status of patients with ARF revealed an immunodeficiency condition.

In this connection we decided to use the preparation which had correcting action to the immune system of human being, that was imunofan, for complex treatment of ARF.

The treatment showed a positive effect of imunofan, enabling to reduce the duration of intoxication symptoms in AFR patients.

Imunofan possesses antiinflammatory, desintoxicational and immunomodulating effects. The usage of imunofan in clinic gave the possibility to prove its desintoxicational and hepatoprotective action.

In patients with severe AFR with prolong hyperthermia we observed expressed sympoms of intoxication. Such symptoms as pain in muscles and joints might persist even after temperature normalization.

In this connection during the convalescence, after normalization of temperature and rash regression the patients with AFR received the treatment of LILR.

The usage of lazertherapy accelerated diminishing of weakness, headache, and eczantema. Even more positive dynamics was registered in duration of myalgia and arthtralgia.

On the background of using LILR the duration of these symptoms was shortened twofold. The use of such therapy promotes an earlier recovery and shorter hospital stay.

The objective is to define the approach to the treatment of joint diseases from the point of view of Oriental medicine. Methods: clinical observation of the patients, diagnostics using the methods of traditional Chinese medicine, Korean Sutczi-Chimsur therapy, methods of functional diagnostics and laboratory methods.

Results: A new approach to diagnostics, prophylaxis and treatment of articulation diseases from the point of view of Oriental medicine was created.

Articulation diseases are one of the most common human illnesses. The causes of most of them are still not found out.

At present scientists associate the incidence of the disease with sex, age, environment, metabolism, immunity factor and the way of life of the patient.

Unfortunately the conventional treatment is followed by side effects and mostly causes only temporary improvement leaving the problem unsolved for many years.

In Chinese medicine arthritis and other joint diseases are defined as stagnation condition; the symptoms are: location and intensity of pain, extent of inflammation, size of the edema and extent of the organ dysfunction.

There are inner organism condition and outer environment factors which cause the joint diseases. This leads to a disorder of regeneration processes and metabolism in osseous tissue, tendon and cartilaginous tissues.

Our methods are based on studying the intensity of the pain syndrome by the duct of the channels around the joints.

Around each big joint from each side there are six channels. For example, around the hands joints there are lungs, colon, heart, small intestine, pericardium and three body parts 35 channels.

Around the feet articulations there are spleen, pancreas, stomach, kidneys, urinary bladder, liver and gall bladder channels.

All the channels surround the join and pain mostly begins in the location of the channel. Our treatment takes into consideration the cause and pathogenesis of the joints and channels duct, determines Ying or Yang type by the syndromes outer-inner, heat-cold, excess-shortage and the main organism syndromes.

The found pathology determines the treatment. It goes the same regarding other joints. It often happens that the patient does not feel pain in an organ or system and the pain in the legs joints can signify a disorder in the stomach channel system.

The important role in treatment of such syndromes play acupuncture, Korean SutcziChimsur therapy, homoeopathy, herbal medicine and Ayurvedic treatment.

In severe cases correction with conventional medications is recommended. Only combination of all treatment and prevention methods can lead to positive results.

Knowing only the location of pain and the channels duct we can detect the organ or system pathology and indicate the treatment.

Gordeeva G. Rutenburg V. Bezhenar T. The advantages of simultaneous operations such as reduction of traumatic intervention, intraoperative and postoperative complications, less hospital stay and temporary disability and postoperative lethality are continuously proved.

Nevertheless the number of simultaneous operations with laparoscope methods remains as insignificant as 36 Programm Abstracts before their introduction.

Objective: To assess the possibilities of laparoscope surgery in women with gynecological disorders and renal cyst, to optimize the approaches of planned simultaneous laparoscope operations in gynecology.

Materials and Methods. Cystodenomectomy was was performed in 3 cases in 4 patients with ovary cystodenomas. Coagulation of endometriosis focus was accomplished to 8 patients with external genital endometriosis I-II stages, which was diagnosed in the course of diagnostic laparoscopy 7 patients with isolated form and 1 in TPS combination.

No display any significant distinctions in these indexes. There were not any complications in postoperative period, it was typical.

No lethal outcome. No difference between average period of hospital treatment malingering operations and hospital treatment cause of laparoscopic hysterectomy or adnexectomy.

Therefore, we can note that application case: renal cyst of auxiliary simultant stages of surgical treatment of gynecologic pathology does not increase complication frequencies.

Performance of andovideosurgical malingering treatment in cases of gynecologic pathology has a number of features, connected with the choice of access.

For cysts localization in back surfaces or in lower kidney pole it is preferably to use retroperitoneoscopic access, and for cysts which situated on front surfaces or in upper pole and also parapelvical cysts localization - transperitonealic.

Therefore, in patients with indication for malingering surgical treatments of with renal cysts in combination with gynecologic pathology we recommend to use transperitonealic access.

Retroperitoneoscopic access might be justified only in cases when malingering diagnostic laparoscopia is needed. Karabintseva L.

Despite of great interest of scientists, the state and industry to the problems of prevention, treatment and rehabilitation in patients with occupational diseases, the use phytopreparations is still insignificant.

Therefore the aim of our work was to investigate a factual use of herbal medications in treatment and rehabilitation of vibration disease and chronic silicosis.

Content-analysis of medical and sanatorium records of the patients with vibration and chronic silicosis showed that phytopreparations are used on the stage of resort rehabilitation.

Most of the patients were treated with phytotherapy in herbal lounges at rehabilitation centers. All infusions were made by local manufacturers.

Thus, the investigation in factual application of phytopreparations confirmed its inadequate use especially at the stages of prevention and treatment of occupational diseases.

However the consumer preferences among the patients and doctors demonstrated interest to phytopreparations. The results of the conducted investigation as well as advantages of herbal medicines a low toxicity, their mildness and multifaceted effect require further researches of rational application of phytopreparations for occupational diseases.

Kiryanov N. Ezhova N. Strelkov L. Saburova D. Leon M. McKee V. Shkolnikov E. This has led to a substantial reduction in the population of the country.

Compared to other industrialised countries, over the past 20 years, mortality has been particularly high among working-age men, resulting in a 39 low life expectancy at birth among men.

If mortality rates in the future among men remain the same as they are today, only half of young men aged 20 will survive until age 60 years.

Since we have carried out a series of investigations of the high mortality among working-age men in a typical Russian city to the West of the Ural mountains.

This included both analysis of official statistics as well as epidemiological and sociological interview studies of live men and those dying in the period The factors associated with problem drinking among men in our study were closely related to socioeconomic circumstances.

Low educational level, being divorced and lack of full-time paid employment were particularly strongly linked to heavy drinking.

If these data could be applied to Russian Federation, this amount suggests that up to excess deaths could be avoided if hazardous alcohol consumption was eliminated.

Based on data from forensic autopsies which were undertaken on almost all deaths in this age group , medical experts and pathologists established that the most common category of cause of death was injuries, poisoning and violence; cardiovascular diseases was the next most common.

Other death causes were rare in occurrence. Thus, our research shows that high mortality in working-age men is associated in many cases with heavy alcohol drinking, and suggests that the adverse effects of alcohol could be diminished with education, availability of permanent job and family.

Smoking is also an important contributor to the very high mortality seen among working age men. It is necessary to develop and implement coordinated policies to reduce risk factors for serious ill health and death seen in the working age population in Russia.

These would include steps to reduce alcohol consumption as a whole and to reduce smoking. Steps also need to be taken to improve treatments for those with alcohol problems.

Most importantly, steps need to be taken to minimise the transmission of these dangerous behaviours to the next generation of Russian citizens.

Klepikova E. Krasnov O. Kolesnikova A. Ditretiophenyl 3- 3, 5 di-tret-butylhydrophenyl propyltiosulphonat sodium is crystal powder of white colour, with a specific smell and a bitterish taste.

In the Ufspectrum there is one maximum of absorption at nm. Ditretiophenyl possesses hydro properties: it is easily dissolve in water, dissolve in spirits and very little in chloroform and benzene.

These immunodepression activities have been tested on experimental model immunocomplex gromerynephrit. Thus, ditrethiofenyl the water-soluble compounds, showing in experimental models in vitro and in vivo expressed antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and radioprotection activities, can find application as a nontoxic immunodepressant.

Kobets Yu. On the different amount of irritant an organism answers with different quality of adaptative reactions. In response to weak irritants general nonspecific reaction of training develops.

The irritants of moderate force cause development of reaction of activating. It is characterized by the raise of protective and regulatory systems of the organism.

The purpose of our research was to develop the expert medical system, intended for the control and differential diagnostics of common nonspecific adaptative reactions of the organism in children with recurrent bronchitis RB , with the purpose of optimization of treatment under conditions of health resort.

For decision of the set problem the analysis of adaptative reactions AR was carried out by the signal indexes of leucocytic formula with the estimation of common levels of reactivity LR according to L.

Garkavi with co-authors in children from 7 to 14 years old, patients with RB at health resort. All children got traditional sanatorium-and-resort treatment with the use of climatic therapy, thalassotherapy, mud therapy and complex of preformation physical factors.

For all children procedures of low intensity low frequency physiotherapy, aeronotherapy , moderate intensity laser irradiation and procedures with strong effect circular douche, sodium chloride baths 42 Programm Abstracts were included in the complex of rehabilitation measures taking into account rehabilitative reactions on admission.

Control of common nonspecific adaptative reactions of children with RB in dynamics and estimation of efficiency of therapy was carried out with the help of the developed by us system ADAPT Analyser 1.

In other words against a background of treatment in children with RB a quiet activation with tense began to occur 3 times as much more frequently, that was clinically manifested by the reduction of exacerbation of bronchitis 1,8 times less for subsequent 6 months.

Tishchenko und die Analyse des vegetativen Nervensystems nach Baevsky. Die Norm ist 1. Bei den Patientinnen wurden die Erkrankungen des Atmungssystems nicht diagnostiziert.

Die Patienten wurden ambulant behandelt. Die Verbesserung sowohl des subjektiven als auch objektiven Zustandes kam nach dem ersten Behandlungstag.

All dies wurde auch in den Forschungen widergespiegelt. Die Anwendung der tetrapolaren Impedanz-Rheoplethysmographie nach M.

Beseitigung oder Linderung eines der Symptome sind einer der Wege der Krankheitsbehandlung. Krasnova A.

Asfendiyarov, Almaty, Kazakstan Urgency. Diabetes Milletus DM remains one of the urgent problems of medicine, for the last years it has become the significant one.

WHO considers it to be a non-infectious epidemy of the 20th century. In such patients a painless form of myocardial infarction MI prevailed resulted from presence of autonomous diabetic neuropathy, as well as transmural or macrofoccal myocardium affection.

To study the extent of stenoses due to atherosclerotic process. Materials and methods. Results and discussion. Over the last 2 years in Almaty muncicipal clinical hospital patients died from MI, in patients DM was observed that accounted for Heart mass was from to gr.

The degree of right and left arteries stenoses was different. Significant differences on clinical, instrumental ECG parameters MI spread, localization, complications and autopsy data spread of myocardium necrosis focus, stenoses of right and left coronary arteries, heart mass, thickness of left ventricle wall were not marked at analysis of clinical case- histories of the died patients.

Conclusions: 1. Stenoses of the left coronary artery prevailed over the right one. Significant differences during MI in patients with DM and in patients without disorders of carbohydrate metabolism were not revealed.

One of the leading places in development of diseases occupies toxoplasma gondii, whose spread is overwhelming.

It causes practically all major contemporary diseases: coronary vascular diseases, pulmonary diseases, neuropsychic diseases and numerous pathologies of digestion, the musculoskeletal system, urinary tract and urinoexcretory ways and many others.

Atherosclerosis is very common and until now the medicine has attributed cholesterol to its cause. Despite of this no single patient in the world has been healed from atherosclerosis and other coronary vascular pathology.

However over the last decade a virus nature of this pathology has been broadly debated. Then why does antitoxoplasma treatment prevent the progression of the atherosclerosis?

Why the medications that work against toxoplasm are even by the conventional medicine are called antiarrhythmics.

How to explain that antiparasitary preparations reverse the development of pathology, restore the correct heart rhythm although the blame is laid on cholesterol and viruses which are not sensitive to these preparations?

This might be applied to other spheres and in particular to neuropsychic diseases. As an example, schizophrenia is cured with antitoxoplasma preparations whilst it is not acknowledged as its cause.

It seems that it will not be possible to ignore the problem of toxoplasm in future. Professor Flegr from 46 Programm Abstracts Karlovy University in Prague testified that toxoplasm so negatively affects car drivers that they are in 2,7 times more susceptible to accidents.

The researches including Americans Gloria Mender, Kevin Lafferti showed that due to toxoplasm exposure the characters of nations change.

Ultimately Prof. Glenn Makkonki, Univesity of Leeds demonstrated at a biochemical level the process of the development of schizophrenia through neurotransmitter dopamine.

The spread of toxoplasm is aggressive and there is no reliable diagnosis. There are no preparations that meet the necessary requirements.

The existing medications enlist a couple of preparations to which toxoplasm promptly adapts. This makes the situation even more serious considering the fact that the parasite prevails in an encysted form.

Kulishova V. Putsenko L. Baranova O. As the performance results there are five patents, five defended theses, two monographs.

The group of scientists became laureates of the Prize established by the Administration of Altai Region in the field of science and technique.

GMT is referred to the methods with a wide scope of therapeutical activities: immunomodulating, hypotensive, regeneratory, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, bacteriostatic, sedative, and adaptive ones.

GMT produces vigorating effect, improves mental and physical productivity, quickly replenishes the body after physical and nervous strain and raises functional reserves.

Complementation a complex treatment of hypertension with GMT renders a proved correction influence on central and cerebral hemodynamics, normalizes vegetative status, and enables cut dose of medications by half.

GMT application for secondary prevention of AH allows correcting such risk factors as hypercoagulation and hyperlipedimia.

The use of GMT in a complex treatment of menopausal syndrome results in a manifested clinical effect, which displayed in a qualitative reduction of flushes, sweating, blood pressure stabilization, improved night sleep, decrease of dizziness, positive cerebral hemodynamics, normalization of vegetative and psychoemotional status.

A definite experience on GMT use for a complex treatment and prevention of peptic ulcer disease has been gained.

Application of this non-medication therapy enables to obtain 47 a better reparative and anti-recurrent effects compared to the control group.

Taking in account that PUD is related to psychosomatic illnesses we would like to stress the positive influence of GMT on psychoemotional status, which manifested in evident reduction of anxiety, depression and increased vitality and optimism.

A special note required on GMT application in oncological patients. The experience of numerous local oncological centers testifies that the magnetic field produces sanogenic and immunomodulating effects in the organism, and exposes tumor cells to a direct destructive effect.

The researches conducted in Altai Oncological Centre reported an improvement of the therapeutical result when GMT is added to chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgical treatment in patients with breast, lung, stomach and genital cancer.

We carried out clinical researches on GMT influence on involution of myomatous nodes in women of reproductive age. Therefore GMT is a comparatively new direction in physiotherapy, which possesses a multifaceted activity.

Clinical researches confirm its beneficial influence on the organism and application feasibility for a number of diseases.

No doubt, the method requires further assessment, even more rigorous clinical approbation and introduction in medical practice.

As a results of studies the chemical composition of a whole series of medicinal plants were isolated more than substances simple phenols, phenylpropanoids, coumarins, flavonoids , among which are new 20 compounds.

The structural elucidation of isolated compounds was carried out with the use of UV-, NMR-spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, different chemical transformations.

Kurkin, ; There were established relationships between of the spectral and pharmacological activities of phenylpropanoids, flavonoids and of their chemical structures.

Besides, in accordingly with new chemical classification of the medicinal plants V. Kurkin, there were introduced in the pharmacognosy so classes of biologically active phenolic compounds as xanthones and quinones.

The above-mentioned textbook includes the description of a whole series of the new medicinal plants, which contain the phenolic compounds: Echinacea purpurea L.

In the present time the Pharmacopoeia of Russia contains about 30 medicinal plants, which are attributed to the flavonoids as the leader group of biologically active compounds.

Besides, in the case of 25 medicinal plants, contained essential oil, saponins and other substances, the flavonoids are interesting as biologically active compounds, namely: Tanacetum vulgare L.

In the present paper are discussed also the actual aspects of the modern standardization of the drugs and the phytopharmaceuticals.

The new possibilities for the development of pharmacognosy gives the use of the thin layer chromatography, the high performance liquid chromatography, UV-, UR-, 1H-NMR-, 13C-NMR-spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and other modern chemical, physical-chemical and spectral methods.

The modern standardization must be based on the use of standard samples in the analytical methods for purpose of the identification and quantitative determination of biologically active compounds in the drugs and the phytopharmaceuticals.

In the course of our investigations there were proposed the series of standard samples for purpose of the standardization of Rhodiola rosea L.

The phenylpropanoids are perspective biologically active compounds of medicinal plants which are of the great interest as the sources of the tonic, immunostimulating, adaptogenic, antioxidative and hepatoprotective phytopharmaceuticals.

The greatest interest are glycosides of cinnamic alcohol, pcoumaric alcohol, sinapic alcohol of Salix viminalis L. Besides it should be to consider as perspective medicinal plants, contained the cinnamic acids and its derivatives namely rosmarinic acid Melissa officinalis L.

The above-mentioned medicinal plants are of the great interest for homoeopathy. Material and Methods. For our experiments we collected the plant materials of Rhodiola rosea rhizomes , Syringa vulgaris barks , Silybum marianum fruits , Echinacea purpurea L.

The some drugs were collected from widely distributed plants in Samara region Salix viminalis barks or in Khabarovsk Krai Eleutherococcus senticosus rhizomes.

There was studied also the biomass of Rhodiola rosea L. The structural elucidation of the isolated phenylpropanoids was carried out by means of the UV-, 1H-NMR-spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and several chemical transformations acetylation, methylation, acid and enzymatic hydrolysis.

The comparative study of the nootropic, anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of the phytopreparations containing phenylpropanoids and of some phenylpropanoids rosavin, triandrin, syringin and silybin on white rats Wistar was carried out.

Results und Discussion. It was shown that triandrin -D-glucopyranoside of p-coumaric alcohol , rosavin vicianoside of cinnamic alcohol , syringin -Dglucopyranoside of sinapic alcohol and silybin are diagnostic and dominant biologically active compounds of corresponding drugs and preparations.

The standard samples of triandrin R. There was shown, that Rhodiola rosea L. The greatest anxiolytic activities there were shown for the Rhodiola rosea tinctures, Melissa officinalis tinctures, Syringa vulgaris tinctures.

Phytopreparations Melissa officinalis tinctures, Eleutherococcus senticosus fluid extracts and Syringa vulgaris tinctures are interesting as antidepressant preparations.

There were established the relationships between the chemical structures of phenylpropanoids rosavin, triandrin, syringin and silybin and of their spectral properties and biologically activities.

There was determined the greatest anxiolytic effect for phenylpropanoids syringin from Eleutherococcus senticosus rhizomes, Syringa vulgaris barks and rosavin from Rhodiola rosea rhizomes.

Kushugulova A. Shevcov A. Kuranov E. Zholdybayeva A. Seydalina S. Oralbaeva S. Kozhakhmetov G. Kulmambetova S.

Rakhimova I. Tynybayeva E. Based on the analysis morphological-cultural and physiological-biochemical parameters, 74 Lactobacillus spp isolates were divided into 3 main groups: Lb.

All three groups are evenly distributed across all regions of Kazakhstan. Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S rDNA and interspacer region of 16 - 23 S rDNA revealed: 25 cultures showed a picture of hydrolysis, typical for Lb.

A direct nucleotide sequence analysis of 16S rDNA was carried out. Correlation analysis of phenotypic and phylogenetic identification of 16S rDNA revealed incorrect identification of 14 isolates.

In the course of this work there were found new alleles fusA option 1 , ileS - Two new allele, lepA - Two new allele, leuS - one new allele, recG - one new allele.

The combination of new alleles allowed dividing isolates of L. In each of these steps it is possible to take control over gene expression, both on the part of the genome, and from the abiogenous factors.

Formation of lactic acid bacteria is of practical importance, as a part of the antimicrobial mechanism. Study of mechanisms of acid production is actual for biochemical use, as well as for genetic methods, which give us the opportunity to manage the processes of acid production.

The aim of our research is to study the mechanisms of gene expression responsible for the production of lactic acid.

As the object of studies strains of Lactobacillus casei were used, which characterize by common for this type of morphological, cultural and biochemical properties.

Bacterial strains are isolated from different sources in different regions of Kazakhstan, typing by sequencing as Lactobacillus casei.

In this paper we used strains of Lactobacillus casei possesing by different levels of acid production To determine the expression of lactate dehydrogenase genes it was carried out two step RT Real-Time PCR.

As intercalating agent it was used SybrGreenI. To determine the initial number of cDNA sample it was used the algorithm describing the behavior of the kinetic curve.

The graph for determining the melting curves of the gene expression of lactate dehydrogenase had a peak with the melting point, indicating that only the accumulation of specific products.

The maximum value acid activity of Lactobacillus casei correspond to the maximum level of lactate dehydrogenase gene. The coefficient of correlation is 0.

It was found, the level of lactate dehydrogenase mRNA varies slightly. The data obtained are preliminary and do not give the full specifications of acid production depending on the lactate dehydrogenase gene expression.

Kuznetsov N. Grigorieva E. To study effects of a cardioselective beta-adrenoblocker bisoprolol on vascular wall endothelium function and external respiration function in stable angina of effort combined with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD.

Endothelial function and external respiration were studied before and after 4-week treatment with bisoprolol in 36 patients with stable angina and COPD using assessment of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation EDVD and concentration of nitric oxide metabolites.

Significant improvement of endothelial function was achieved due to 4-week bisoprolol treatment which did not affect external respiration function.

Bisoprolol is an effective and safe drug in the treatment of stable angina combined with COPD. It can noticeably improve endothelial function.

Kuzyakowa O. Butova O. Tanner sind. Die Ergebnisse. Die Schlussfolgerung. Therapeuten umgesetzt. Lugova V. It can be applied in medicine and psychology.

Novelty, uniqueness and efficiency of the method is confirmed and protected by three Russian and one international patents. Lugova method.

Lugova Method on the basis of which Antistress Color Correction has been created. This method gives a choice to choose the color and select color correction combinations for complex color therapy taking in consideration the current psychoemotional state, individual peculiarity of a person and his stress stability.

Visual color impulse correction VCIC is the influence by electromagnetic impulses of the visible spectrum through a visual analyzer on the person.

VCIC is carried out by means of special glasses with radiator sources of optical radiation and the block of conducting of light impulses.

Optimum color and rhythmic components of apparatuses VCIC are the mortgage of affective influence. They allow to make procedures to patients in view of individual perception of color and rhythm.

Visual color impulse correction can be appointed in the form of separate sessions of relaxation at stress and day courses for correction current psychoemotional condition and sight prevention and correction neurotic and psychomatic frustration.

For definition of rhythms of the visual analyzer which often happens to be broken at psychoemotional and visual infringements, special glasses have been developed for research of rhythms of visual perception in visual color impulse correction.

These glasses can be used before appointing ACC and after carrying out the medical course. The given research gives a chance to find infringements of rhythms of visual perception and to estimate efficiency of ACC at their repeated definition.

Color correction combinations are relaxing, toning up and mixing, they are harmonious combinations of colors to the optical degree of their clarification or blackout for visual influence in polygraphic or electronic kind, and also interior and clothes.

For a situational and typological choice of color, selection of color correction combination and their further usage the Atlas of antistress color correction tables has been developed and published.

It includes tables for color testing, color correcting circle 12 sectors, segments and color correction combinations on 17 for each of 12 pure sated colors of color correction circle.

Antistress color correction is effective in prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of 56 Programm Abstracts neurotic and psychomatic frustration, harmonization of the individual and interpersonal attitudes, increases stress stability and adaptable opportunities of organism.

Madigulov K. Toguzbaeva A. Belonog A. Lukashev G. Alibekova L. Sejduanova S. New engineering, technology, toolkits, equipment and medications are constantly introduced into dental practice.

On the one hand, it improves the quality of treatment and facilitates work of the staff, an the other hand dentists are confronted with new operating conditions, which are not thoroughly investigated in terms of occupational hygiene.

Now attention of hygienists should be switched to exposure to latest dental equipment, new filling materials, allergic effects of chemical substances used in dentistry, toxic concentrations in the air in dental surgery and diseases of dentists and dental technicians.

A peculiarity of working conditions at a dental prosthodontic laboratories is marked with a risk factor dealing with an air pollution due to various chemical substances in various modular conditions dust, vapors, gases some which are toxic: mercury, cadmium, lead, carbon oxide, an acid and alkali, SiO2, acrylates etc.

Beside of the enlisted substances there are also certain combinations, which influence in conditions of dental surgery remains quite obscure.

During manufacturing of metal dentures gold, silver, platinum, chromium, nickel, titanium, molybdenum, cobalt etc.

Their vapors and dust encompass about 20 metals, for example during production of dentures. In this context the purpose of the present research was to investigate the influence of chemical factors on working conditions and diseases of dental staff in a number of dental clinics in Almaty.

The preliminary data revealed that so far the sanitary normative documents do not stipulate concentration of hazardous substances in the air of dental surgery premises.

The problem of an allergy in dentistry is especially actual. According to the literary data this field of medicine uses more than chemical substances that are able to cause allergic reactions not only in patients but in doctors as well.

According to latest dental studies in Kazakhstan amalgam is not applied any longer although abroad it still finds a wide application. Therefore the urgency of conducting researches on hygiene in dentistry is evident.

Toguzbayeva A. Belonog G. Alibekova A. Lukashev M. Asfendijarov, Almaty, Kazakhstan Studying of hygiene of the working environment of medical staff in general, and staff of dental facilities in particular till now has been done insufficiently.

If medical professions used to consider safe from industrial exposure, now it is evident that doctors are subjects to about various harmful factors.

Somewhat separate in this context are dental doctors and dental technicians. If exposure to noise among other medical professions is not a significant factor, it truly is for dental staff.

High-speed drills and turbines have been employed in dentistry for almost fifty years. Their application eliminates painful sensations in the patient at manipulations, accelerates grinding and other processing of a tooth and reduces manual strain in the dentist.

At the same time air or water cooling, promotes dispersion in air of an aerosol from an oral cavity of the patient, which quite often contains a pathogenic microflora.

It called upon a discussion on preliminary hygienic processing of oral cavity aimed at eliminating the source of infection.

Pathogenic flora from a mouth of the patient, ultimately infects dental premises. This question has not been properly highlighted. Operating dental equipment, in particular, the high-speed turbines, accelerating momentum rotations up to thousand revolutions a minute reaches the maximal energy of a sound -equal to frequency of hertz.

The incidence of hearing pathologies among dental staff workers there is an open question. Some researchers deny the role of noise in etimology of hearing problems among dentists, other quote the data on occurrence of left-hand relative deafness in dentists working on turbines.

In regard to vibration as a harmful factor there is still no evidence. The combined action of materials and the preparations used in dental surgery as a hazardous factor is also open to rigorous experimental and epidemiological researches.

Thus, hygiene of working conditions in dentistry presents an actual problem. Martusevich A. Vorobyov A. Grishina S. The advantages of this research methods group underline the importance of crystalloscopy application.

That is why the significant question of modern biocrystallography is the highest possible objectivity of findings. It should be mentioned that the most authors do not describe or analyse the process and results of yielding of crystals, except visual description.

Burns are wide spread trauma variant, which can provoke specific burn disease, associated with all system and organs dysfunction.

One of its main pathogenesis components is endotoxicosis, connected with overconcentration of some substances in the blood, such as medium level weight molecules, creatinine et others.

This transformation of biological fluid composition determinate changes of its crystallogenic properties, which can be an integral index of organism metabolic status.

There is almost no information about biological fluids morphology at burn disease, and first of all at thermo-inhalation effect.

That is why our research aim was data comparison of the saliva facia criterial visual morphometry and blood serum of the patients with thermoinhalation trauma, and biosubstratum neogenic crystals spectrometric analysis.

The dehydrated biological fluids micropreparations were made by classic crystalloscopy and comparative tezigraphy methods.

Estimation of the crystalloscopic and tezigraphic analysis results was made by the original algorithm. Situated on the object-plate samples of the dehydrated biological fluids were examined spectrometrically by the PowerWave XS device USA , special attention was paid to the waves with the , and nm length absorption rate.

Statistic processing of the data was accomplished by program systems Primer of biostatistics 4.

Results and discussion 59 Based on the morphometric analysis of the saliva and blood serum crystalloscopic and tezigraphic facias of the thermo-inhalation traumatized patients, we established that free and initiated crystallogenesis of such patients had a specific character.

It should be mentioned that thermo-inhalation trauma features became apparent in micropreparations, when the characteristics of the biosubstratum samples were preserved.

Analysis of the facias spectrometric characteristics revealed some peculiarities of the biofluids crystals absorption rate at the above-mentioned wave-lengths.

It is interesting that absorption rate differentiation was noted only at nm wave-length in the samples made by classic crystalloscopy methods, whereas tezigraphic facias were differ in spectrometric characteristics at all of the studied wave-lengths.

Considerable shifts in saliva and blood serum crystallogenic and initiating properties were revealed at thermo-inhalation trauma and visualized morphometrically and spectrometrically.

It was registered at the Ministry of Heath in Ukraine and Byelorussia as a radioprotective, antistress, adaptogenic, antitoxic preparation against inflammation.

The experiments were carried out on hybrid mice of both sexes, weighing gr. The control animals were given the drinking water Placebo instead of preparation one hour before receiving ethanol.

This method is based on novel matrix transducer technology which is capable of rapid real-time three-dimensional acquisition and rendering.

The diagnostic performance of four-dimensional echocardiography is visualization of details of cardiac anatomy in patients with heart diseases.

Objective: To estimate opportunities of a four-dimensional echocardiography 4DEcho in diagnostics of anatomical, morphological and functional abnormalities in patients with different heart diseases.

Results: patients with congenital heart diseases, 20 patients with valvular diseases were included in this study.

We made 35 fetal 4DEcho examinations with congenital heart disease. Use of 4DEcho at congenital heart diseases has allowed to visualise details of anatomic, morphological and functional abnormalities.

Spectrum of congenital heart diseases was wide: septum defects, atrioventricular channel AVC , coarctation of aorta, pulmonary stenosis, intra-cardiac mass and other.

The 4D diagnostics of septal defects has led to the most exact estimation of their localization, the form, edges.

At AVC three components have been investigated: atrial, ventricular, valvular portions of the channel. The greatest interest was represented by an estimation of atrioventricular valves and subvalvular apparatus: a condition and fastening of leaflets, an arrangement of chords of both portions of the common valve, cleft of leaflets.

At pulmonary artery stenosis and right ventricular outflow tract obstruction the type and character of pathology has been appreciated with 4DEcho.

Fetal 4D echocardiography allows to improving of visualization of cardiac structures at congenital heart diseases from 22 to 40 weeks of pregnancy.

The acquire heart diseases were presented defeat of mitral, tricuspid, aortic valves, prosthetic valves.

At valvular diseases the details of anatomy and morphology have been 62 Programm Abstracts investigated.

Research of prosthetic valves allows to estimating their conditions and dysfunction. Intra-cardiac mass the cases of tumour, thrombus, vegetations at infectious endocarditis also become more accessible to visualisation.

Estimation of ventricular volume is important for baseline and serial evaluation of abnormal hearts. The left ventricular volume was calculated by multiplane method.

We performed 4DEcho multi-plane quantitative analysis of LV volumes, based on contours drawn from three cross sections of end-systole and end-diastole.

According to some researchers, the calculating of LV volumes now is quite an exact method because it is based on geometrical reconstruction in three ut-planes Zaeidan Z et al.

Conclusions: 4DEcho allows us in daily practice to diagnose details of anatomy and morphology of heart structures and prosthetic valves, to improve revealing of congenital heart diseases in fetuses.

The limitation of method of 4DEcho now is connected with possibilities of equipment. We hope that the improvement of equipment and development of method will lead to its wide application as a routine method.

Nichik V. Affected patients rarely have a kidney biopsy and their diagnoses therefore remain uncertain. Moreover, in the case of hypertensive patients with mild proteinuria, nephrologists tend to make a diagnosis of benign nephrosclerosis without renal biopsy.

The objective of the present study was to examine patients suspected of renal glomerular disease, which at biopsy proved to have isolated benign nephrosclerosis or mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis MPGN.

Methods: We performed semi quantitative histopathological analysis in 81 patients M:F with hypertension and mild proteinuria of less than 2.

However, the age of patients At the same time mean GFR was lower in group 1 The percentage of globally sclerotic glomeruli was significantly higher in group 1, comparing with group 2 The grades of tubular atrophy 0.

Conclusions: In mild proteinuria renal histopathological changes are more severe in hypertension than in MPGN, possibly because of higher age, duration of hypertension and levels of BP in patients with essential hypertension.

Die genaue Dignose bedeutet auch den richtigen Therapieweg einer Erkrankung zu finden. Bei Hauterkrankungen, z. Wenn der Patient an Anemie leidet, stelle ich das Blut als Wellen dar und bestimme welche Mikroelemente eine geringere Anzahl haben und welche die verunreinigenden Stoffe sind.

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On the basis of an extensive series of measurements in of heat flux and radiation intensities and from an analysis of photographs, an approximate mass balance of the reactor fuel distribution was established data reported by Borovoi and Sich [B16, S1].

Different estimates of the reactor fuel distribution have been proposed byothers. Purvis [P4] indicated that the amount of fuel in the lava, plus fragments of the reactor core under the level of the bottom of the reactor, is between 27 and t and that the total amount of the fuel in the reactor hall area is between 77 and t.

Kisselev et al. It may be that most of the fuel is on the roof of the reactor hall and is covered by the material that was dropped on it from helicopters.

Only the removal of this layer of material will allow making a better determination of the reactor fuel distribution. Two basic methods were used to estimate the release of radionuclides in the accident.

The first method consists in evaluating separately the inventory of radionuclides in the reactor core at the time of the accident and the fraction of the inventory of each radionuclide that was released into the atmosphere; the products of those two quantities are the amounts released.

The second method consists in measuring the radionuclide deposition density on the ground all around the reactor; if it is assumed that all of the released amounts deposited within the area where the measurements were made, the amounts deposited are equal to the amounts released.

In both methods, air samples taken over the reactor or at various distances from the reactor were analysed for radionuclide content to determine or to confirm the radionuclide distribution in the materials released.

The analysis of air samples and of fallout also led to information on the physical and chemical properties of the radioactive materials that were released into the atmosphere.

It is worth noting, however, that the doses were estimated on the basis of environmental and human measurements and that the knowledge of the quantities released was not needed for that purpose.

Estimation of radionuclide amounts released From the radiological point of view, I and Cs are the most important radionuclides to consider, because they are responsible for most of the radiation exposure received by the general population.

Several estimates have been made of the radionuclide core inventory at the time of the accident.

Some of these estimates are based on the burn-up of individual fuel assemblies that has been made available [B1, S1]. The average burn-up of In the case of Te and of the shortlived radioiodines, Khrouch et al.

An extended list of radionuclides present in the core at the time of the accident is presented in Table 1. The values used by the Committee in this Annex are those presented in the last column on the right.

For comparison purposes, the initial estimates of the core inventory as presented in [I2], which were used by the Committee in the UNSCEAR Report [U4], are also presented in Table 1; these estimates, however, have been decaycorrected to 6 May , that is, 10 days after the beginning of the accident.

The large differences observed between initial and recent estimates for short-lived radionuclides radioactive half-lives of less than 10 days are mainly due to radioactive decay between the actual day of release and 6 May, while minor differences may have been caused by the use of different computer codes to calculate the build-up of activity in the reactor core.

For Cs, the and current estimates of core inventory at the time of the accident are and PBq, respectively. For I, the corresponding values are 1, and 3, PBq, respectively.

There are several estimates of radionuclides released in the accident based on recent evaluations. Three such listings, including two taken from the IAEA international conference that took place at Vienna in [D8], are given in Table 2 and compared to the original estimates of [I2].

The estimates of Buzulukov and Dobrynin [B4], as well as those of Kruger et al. There is general agreement on the releases of most radionuclides, and in particular those of Cs and I, presented in the evaluations.

From average deposition densities of Cs and the areas of land and ocean regions, the total Cs deposit in the northern hemisphere was estimated to be 70 PBq, which is in fairly good agreement with the current estimate.

This, however, was the inventory of I at the end of the release period 6 May It would have been higher at the beginning of the accident.

The results presented in Table 2 are incomplete with respect to the releases of Te and of the short-lived radioiodines I to I.

In this Annex, the releases of those radionuclides have been scaled to the releases of I, using the radionuclide inventories presented in Table 1 and taking into account the radioactive half-lives of the radionuclides.

The following procedure was used: a the release rates at the time of the steam explosion were estimated from the radionuclide inventories presented in Table 1, assuming no fractionation for the short-lived radioiodines I, I and I with respect to I, a value of 0.

The activity ratios to I in the initial release rates are therefore estimated to have been 1.

The estimated daily releases of I are presented in Table 3; and c the variation with time of the release rates of the short-lived radioiodines and of Te has been assumed to be the same as that of I, but a correction was made to take into account the differences in radioactive half-lives.

Daily release of iodine, iodine, tellurium and caesium from the Chernobyl reactor. The overall releases of short-lived radioiodines and of Te are presented in Table 4; they are found to be substantially lower than those of I.

This is due to the fact that most of the short-lived radioiodines decayed in the reactor instead of being released.

Additional, qualitative information on the pattern of release of radionuclides from the reactor is given in Figure III.

The concentrations of radionuclides in air were determined in air samples collected by helicopter above the damaged reactor [B4].

Although the releases were considerably reduced on 5 and 6 May days 9 and 10 after the accident , continuing low-level releases occurred in the following week and for up to 40 days after the accident.

Particularly on 15 and 16 May, higher concentrations were observed, attributable to continuing outbreaks of fires or to hot areas of the reactor [I6].

These later releases can be correlated with increased concentrations of radionuclides in air measured at Kiev and Vilnius [I6, I35, U16].

Physical and chemical properties of the radioactive materials released There were only a few measurements of the aerodynamic size of the radioactive particles released during the first days of the accident.

A crude analysis of air samples, taken at m above the ground in the vicinity of the Chernobyl power plant on 27 April , indicated that large radioactive particles, varying in size from several to tens of micrometers, were found, together with an abundance of smaller particles [I6].

In a carefully designed experiment, aerosol samples taken on 14 and 16 May with a device installed on an aircraft that flew above the damaged reactor were analysed by spectrometry [B6, G14].

Concentration of radionuclides in air measured above the damaged Chernobyl reactor [B6]. The geometric sizes of the fuel particles collected in Hungary, Finland and Bulgaria ranged from 0.

Taking the density of fuel particles to be 9 g cm3, their aerodynamic diameter therefore ranged from 1. Similar average values were obtained for fuel particles collected in May in southern Germany [R20] and for those collected in the km zone in September [G27].

It was observed that Chernobyl fallout consisted of hot particles in addition to more homogeneouslydistributed radioactive material [D6, D7, K34, S26, S27, S28].

These hot particles can be classified into two broad categories: a fuel fragments with a mixture of fission products bound to a matrix of uranium oxide, similar to the composition of the fuel in the core, but sometimes strongly depleted in caesium, iodine and ruthenium, and b particles consisting of one dominant element ruthenium or barium but sometimes having traces of other elements [D6, J3, J4, K35, K36, S27].

These monoelemental particles may have originated from embedments of these elements produced in the fuel during reactor operation and released during the fragmentation of the fuel [D7].

Typical activities per hot particle are 0. Hot particles deposited in the pulmonary region will have a long retention time, leading to considerable local doses [B33, L23].

In the immediate vicinity of a 1 kBq ruthenium particle, the dose rate is about 1, Gy h1, which causes cell killing; however, sublethal doses are received by cells within a few millimetres of the hot particle.

Although it was demonstrated in the s that radiation doses from alpha-emitting hot particles are not more radiotoxic than the same activity uniformly distributed in the whole lung [B28, L33, L34, L35, R15], it is not clear whether the same conclusion can be reached for beta-emitting hot particles [B33, S27].

Areas of the former Soviet Union Radioactive contamination of the ground was found to some extent in practically every country of the northern hemisphere [U4].

In this Annex, contaminated areas are defined as areas where the average Cs deposition densities exceeded 37 kBq m2 1 Ci km2. Caesium was chosen as a reference radionuclide for the ground contamination resulting from the Chernobyl accident for several reasons: its substantial contribution to the lifetime effective dose, its long radioactive half-life, and its ease of measurement.

As shown in Table 5, the contaminated areas were found mainly in Belarus, in the Russian Federation and in Ukraine [I24].

The radionuclides released in the accident deposited over most of the European territory of the former Soviet Union. A map of this territory is presented in Figure IV.

The main city gives its name to each region. The regions oblasts are subdivided into districts raions.

The important releases lasted 10 days; during that time, the wind changed direction often, so that all areas surrounding the reactor site received some fallout at one time or another.

The initial plumes of materials released from the Chernobyl reactor moved towards the west. On 27 April, the winds shifted towards the northwest, then on 28 April towards the east.

Administrative regions surrounding the Chernobyl reactor. Plume formation by meteorological conditions for instantaneous releases on dates and times GMT indicated [B7].

The contamination of Ukrainian territorysouth of Chernobyl occurred after 28 April Figure V, traces 4, 5 and 6. Rainfall occurred in an inhomogeneous pattern, causing uneven contamination areas.

The general pattern of Cs deposition based on calculations from meteorological conditions has been shown to match the measured contamination pattern rather well [B7].

Surface ground deposition of caesium released in the Chernobyl accident [I1, I3]. Surface ground deposition of caesium in the immediate vicinity of the Chernobyl reactor [I1, I24].

The distances of 30 km and 60 km from the nuclear power plant are indicated. The detailed contamination patterns have been established from extensive monitoring of the affected territory.

The contamination of soil with Cs in the most affected areas of Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine is shown in Figure VI, and the Cs contamination of soil in the immediate area surrounding the reactor is shown in Figure VII.

The deposition of 90Sr and of nuclear fuel particles, usuallyrepresented as the deposition oftheir marker, 95 Zr or Ce, were relatively localized.

An important deposition map to be established is that of I. Because there were not enough measurements at the time of deposition, the I deposition pattern can be only approximated from limited data and relationships inferred from Cs deposition.

Because the I to Cs ratio was observed to vary from 5 to 60, the I deposition densities estimated for areas without I measurements are not very reliable.

Measurements of the current concentrations of I in soil could provide valuable information on the I deposition pattern [S45]. The principal physico-chemical form of the deposited radionuclides are: a dispersed fuel particles, b condensation-generated particles, and c mixed-type particles, including the adsorption-generated ones [I22].

Deposition in the near zone reflected the radionuclide composition of the fuel. Larger particles, which were primarily fuel particles, and the refractory elements Zr, Mo, Ce and Np were to a large extent deposited in the near zone.

Intermediate elements Ru, Ba, Sr and fuel elements Pu, U were also deposited largely in the near zone. The volatile elements I, Te and Cs in the form of condensation-generated particles, were more widely dispersed into the far zone [I6].

Of course, this characterization oversimplifies the actual dispersion pattern. Areas of high contamination from Cs occurred throughout the far zone, depending primarilyon rainfall at the time the plume passed over.

The composition of the deposited radionuclides in these highly contaminated areas was relatively similar. Some ratios of radionuclides in different districts of the near and far zones are given in Table 6.

The Central area is in the near zone, predominantly to the west and northwest of the reactor. Outside these three main contaminated areas there were manyareas where the Cs deposition densitywas in the range kBq m2.

Rather detailed surveys of the contamination of the entire European part of the former Soviet Union have been completed [I3, I6, I24].

A map of measured Cs deposition is presented in Figure VI. The areas affected by Cs contamination are listed in Table 7.

As can be seen, , km2 experienced a Cs deposition density greater than 37 kBq m2 1 Ci km2. The total quantity of Cs deposited as a result of the accident in the contaminated areas of the former Soviet Union, including in areas of lesser deposition, is estimated in Table 8 to be 43 PBq.

A Cs background of 24 kBq m2 attributable toresidual levels from atmospheric nuclear weapons testing from earlier years must be subtracted to obtain the total deposit attributable to the Chernobyl accident.

When this is done, the total Cs deposit from the accident is found to be approximately 40 PBq Table 8.

Dernovichi Savici Pirki Dovlyady The Gomel-Mogilev-Bryansk contamination area is centred km to the north-northeast of the reactor at the boundary of the Gomel and Mogilev regions of Belarus and of the Bryansk region of the Russian Federation.

In some areas contamination was comparable to that in the Central area; deposition densities even reached 5 MBq m2 in some villages of the Mogilev and Bryansk regions.

The Kaluga-Tula-Orel area is located km to the northeast of the reactor. Contamination there came from the same radioactive cloud that caused contamination in the Gomel-Mogilev-Bryansk area as a result of rainfall on April.

The Cs deposition density was, however, lower in this area, generally less than kBq m2. The Cs deposition was highest within the km-radius area surrounding the reactor, known as the km zone.

Deposition densities exceeded 1, kBq m2 40 Ci km2 in this zone and also in some areas of the near zone to the west and northwest of the reactor, in the Gomel, Kiev and Zhitomir regions Figure VII.

Surface ground deposition of strontium released in the Chernobyl accident [I1]. Surface ground deposition of plutonium and plutonium released in the Chernobyl accident at levels exceeding 3.

Estimated surface ground deposition in Belarus and western Russia of iodine released in the Chernobyl accident [B25, P19]. Surface ground deposition of caesium released in Europe after the Chernobyl accident [D13].

During the first weeks after the accident, most of the activity deposited on the ground consisted of short-lived radionuclides, of which I was the most important radiologically.

As indicated in paragraph 35, these maps are based on the limited number of measurements of I deposition density available in the former Soviet Union, and they use Cs measurements as a guide in areas where I was not measured.

These maps must be regarded with caution, as the ratio of the I to Cs deposition densities was found to vary in a relatively large range, at least in Belarus.

Interhemispheric transfer also occurred to a small extent through human activities, such as shipping of foods or materials to the southern hemisphere.

Therefore, only very low levels of radioactive materials originating from the Chernobyl accident have been present in the biosphere of the southern hemisphere, and the resulting doses have been negligible.

Deposition of 90Sr was mostly limited to the near zone of the accident. Only a few separate sites with 90Sr deposition density in the range kBq m2 were found in the Gomel-Mogilev-Bryansk area, i.

The environmental behaviour of deposited radionuclides depends on the physical and chemical characteristics of the radionuclide considered, on the type of fallout i.

Special attention will be devoted to I, Cs and 90Sr and their pathways of exposure to humans. Deposition can occur on the ground or on water surfaces.

The terrestrial environment will be considered first. Information on the deposition of plutonium isotopes is not as extensive because of difficulties in detecting these radionuclides.

The only area with plutonium levels exceeding 4 kBq m2 was located within the km zone Figure IX. In the Gomel-Mogilev-Bryansk area, the ,Pu deposition density ranged from 0.

At Korosten, located in Ukraine about km southwest of the Chernobyl power plant, where the Cs deposition density was about kBq m2, the ,Pu deposition density due to the Chernobyl accident derived from data in [H8] is found to be only about 0.

Terrestrial environment 2. Remainder of northern and southern hemisphere As shown in Table 5, there are also other areas, in Europe, where the Cs deposition density exceeded 37 kBq m2, notably, the three Scandinavian countries Finland, Norway and Sweden , Austria and Bulgaria.

Small amounts of radiocaesium and of radioiodine penetrated the lower stratosphere of the northern hemisphere during the first few days after the accident [J6, K43].

Subsequently, transfer of radiocaesium to the lower atmospheric layers of the southern hemisphere may have occurred as a result of interhemispheric air movements from the northern to the southern stratosphere, followed by subsidence in the troposphere [D11].

However, radioactive contamination was not detected in the southern hemisphere D. For short-lived radionuclides such as I, the main pathway of exposure of humans is the transfer of the amounts deposited on leafy vegetables that are consumed within a few days, or on pasture grass that is grazed by cows or goats, giving rise to the contamination of milk.

The amounts deposited on vegetation are retained with a half-time of about two weeks before removal to the ground surface and to the soil.

Long-term transfer of I from deposition on soil to dietary products that are consumed several weeks after the deposition has occurred need not be considered, because I has a physical half-life of only 8 days.

Radionuclides deposited on soil migrate downwards and are partially absorbed by plant roots, leading in turn to upward migration into the vegetation.

These processes should be considered for long-lived radionuclides, such as Cs and 90Sr. The rate and direction of the radionuclide migration into the soil-plant pathway are determined by a number of natural phenomena, including relief features, the type of plant, the structure and makeup of the soil, hydrological conditions and weather patterns, particularly at the time that deposition occurred.

The vertical migration of Cs and 90Sr in soil of different types of natural meadows has been rather slow, and the greater fraction of radionuclides is still contained in its upper layer cm.

The effective half-time of clearance from the root layer in meadows cm in mineral soils has been estimated to range from 10 to 25 years for Cs and to be 1.

For a given initial contamination of soil, the transfer from soil to plant varies with time as the radionuclide is removed from the root layer and as its availability in exchangeable form changes.

The Cs content in plants was maximum in , when the contamination was due to direct deposition on aerial surfaces.

In , Cs in plants was 36 times lower than in , as the contamination of the plants was then mainly due to root uptake.

Since , the transfer coefficients from deposition to plant have continued to decrease, although the rate of decrease has slowed: from to , the transfer coefficients of Cs decreased by 1.

Later on, ageing processes led to similar mobility values for Cs from the Chernobyl accident and from global fallout.

The variability of the transfer coefficient from deposition to pasture grass for Cs is indicated in Table 9 for natural meadows in the Polissya area of Ukraine [S40].

The type of soil and the water content both have an influence on the transfer coefficient, the values of which were found to range from 0.

The variability as a function of time after the accident in the Russian Federation has been studied and reported on by Shutov et al.

Contrary to Cs, it seems that the exchangeability of Sr does not keep decreasing with time after the accident and may even be increasing [B36, S41].

In the Russian Federation, no statistically significant change was found in the 90Sr transfer coefficient from deposition to grass during the first 4 to 5 years following the accident [S41].

This is attributable to two competing processes: a 90Sr conversion from a poorly soluble form, which characterized the fuel particles, to a soluble form, which is easily assimilated by plant roots, and b the vertical migration of 90Sr into deeper layers of soil, hindering its assimilation by vegetation [S41].

The contamination of milk, meat and potatoes usually accounts for the bulk of the dietary intake of Cs. However, for the residents of rural regions, mushrooms and berries from forests occupy an important place.

The decrease with time of the Cs concentrations in those foodstuffs has been extremely slow, with variations from one year to another depending on weather conditions [I22].

Aquatic environment Deposition of radioactive materials also occurred on water surfaces. Deposition on the surfaces of seas and oceans resulted in low levels of dose because the radioactive materials were rapidly diluted into very large volumes of water.

In rivers and small lakes, the radioactive contamination resulted mainly from erosion of the surface layers of soil in the watershed, followed by runoff in the water bodies.

In the km zone, where relatively high levels of ground deposition of 90Sr and Cs occurred, the largest surface water contaminant was found to be 90Sr, as Cs was strongly adsorbed by clay minerals [A15, M19].

Much of the 90Sr in water was found in dissolved form; low levels of plutonium isotopes and of Am were also measured in the rivers of the km zone [A15, M19].

The contribution of aquatic pathways to the dietary intake of Cs and 90Sr is usually quite small. However, the Cs concentration in the muscle of predator fish, like perch or pike, may be quite high in lakes with long water retention times, as found in Scandinavia and in Russia [H16, K47, R21, T23].

For example, concentration of Cs in the water of lakes Kozhanyand Svyatoe located in severely contaminated part of the Bryansk region of Russia was still high in because of special hydrological conditions: Bq l1 of Cs and 0.

Concentration of Cs in the muscles of crucian Carassius auratus gibeio sampled in the lake Kozhany was in the range of kBq kg1 and in pike Esox lucius in the range kBq kg1 [K47, T23].

Activity of Cs in inhabitants of the village Kozhany located along the coast of lake Kozhany measured by whole-body counters in summer was 7.

Taking into account seasonal changes in the Cs whole-body activity, the average annual internal doses were estimated to be 0.

Also, the relative importance of the aquatic pathways, in comparison to terrestrial pathways, may be high in areas downstream of the reactor site where ground deposition was small.

Improper, unstable operation of the reactor allowed an uncontrollable power surge to occur, resulting in successive steam explosions that severely damaged the reactor building and completely destroyed the reactor.

It is worth noting, however, that the doses were estimated on the basis of environmental and thyroid or body measurements and that knowledge of the quantities released was not needed for that purpose.

The three main areas of contamination, defined as those with Cs deposition density greater than 37 kBq m2 1 Ci km2 , are in Belarus, the Russian Federation and Ukraine; they have been designated the Central, GomelMogilev-Bryansk and Kaluga-Tula-Orel areas.

The Central area is within about km of the reactor, predominantly to the west and northwest. The Gomel-Mogilev-Bryansk contamination area is centred km to the northnortheast of the reactor at the boundary of the Gomel and Mogilev regions of Belarus and of the Bryansk region of the Russian Federation.

The Kaluga-Tula-Orel area is located in the Russian Federation, about km to the northeast of the reactor. All together, as shown in Table 7 and in Figure XI, territories with an area of approximately , km2 were contaminated in the former Soviet Union.

Outside the former Soviet Union, there were many areas in northern and eastern Europe with Cs deposition density in the range kBq m2.

These regions represent an area of 45, km2, or about one third of the contaminated areas found in the former Soviet Union.

For short-lived radionuclides such as I, the main pathway of exposure to humans is the transfer of amounts deposited on leafy vegetables that are consumed by humans within a few days, or on pasture grass that is grazed by cows or goats, giving rise to the contamination of milk.

For long-lived radionuclides such as Cs, the long-term transfer processes from soil to foods consumed several weeks or more after deposition need to be considered.

It is convenient to classify into three categories the populations who were exposed to radiation following the Chernobyl accident: a the workers involved in the accident, either during the emergency period or during the clean-up phase; b inhabitants of evacuated areas; and c inhabitants of contaminated areas who were not evacuated.

The available information on the doses received by the three categories of exposed populations will be presented and discussed in turn.

Doses from external irradiation and from internal irradiation will be presented separately. The external exposures due to gamma radiation were relatively uniform over all organs and tissues of the body, as their main contributors were TeI, I and BaLa for evacuees, Cs and Cs for inhabitants of contaminated areas who were not evacuated, and radionuclides emitting photons of moderatelyhigh energy for workers.

These external doses from gamma radiation have been expressed in terms of effective dose. With regard to internal irradiation, absorbed doses in the thyroid have been estimated for exposures to radioiodines and effective doses have been estimated for exposures to radiocaesiums.

Doses have in almost all cases been estimated by means of physical dosimetrytechniques. Biological indicators of dose has been mainly used, within days or weeks after the accident, to estimate doses received by the emergency workers, who received high doses from external irradiation and for whom dosemeters were either not operational nor available.

Unlike physical dosimetry, biological dosimetric methods are generally not applicable to doses below 0. Soon after the accident, biological dosimetry is usually based on the measurement of the frequency of unstable chromosome aberrations dicentric and centric rings.

By comparing the rate of dicentric chromosomes and centric rings with a standard dose-effect curve obtained in an experiment in vitro, it is possible to determine a radiation dose.

However, the use of dicentric as well as other aberrations of the unstable type for the purposes of biological dosimetry is not always possible, since the frequency of cells containing such aberrations declines in time after exposure.

For retrospective dosimetry long after the exposure, biological dosimetry can be a complement to physical dosimetry, but only techniques where radiation damage to the biological indicator is stable and persistent and not subject to biochemical, physiological or immunological turnover, repair or depletion are useful.

In that respect, the analysis of stable aberrations translocations , the frequency of which remains constant for a long time after exposure to radiation, is promising.

The probability of occurrence of stable translocations and unstable dicentrics aberrations after exposure is the same.

However, translocations are not subjected to selection during cell proliferation, in contrast to dicentrics. Fluorescence in situ hybridization FISH or Fast-FISH in conjunction with chromosome painting may be useful in retrospective dosimetry for several decades after exposure.

Other biological or biophysical techniques for measuring doses are electron spin resonance ESR or opticallystimulated luminescence OSL.

These techniques are used in retrospective dosimetry to measure the radiation damage accumulated in biological tissue such as bone, teeth, fingernails and hair.

Also, the gene mutation glycophorin A that is associated with blood cells may be used. Most of them were at the reactor site at the time of the accident or arrived at the plant during the few first hours.

The numbers of accident witnesses and emergency workers are listed in Table According to Table 10, on the morning of 26 April, about emergency workers were on the site of the Chernobyl power plant.

The workers involved in various ways in the accident can be divided into two groups: a those involved in emergency measures during the first day of the accident 26 April , who will be referred to as emergency workers in this Annex, and b those active in at the power station or in the zone surrounding it for the decontamination work, sarcophagus construction and other clean-up operations.

This second group of workers is referred to as recovery operation workers in this Annex, although the term liquidator gained common usage in the former Soviet Union.

The power plant personnel wore only film badges that could not register doses in excess of 20 mSv. All of these badges were overexposed.

The firemen had no dosimeters and no dosimetric control. Dose rates on the roof and in the rooms of the reactor block reached hundreds of gray per hour.

Measured exposure rates in the vicinity of the reactor at the time of the accident are shown in Figure XII. Emergency workers Measured exposure rates in air on 26 April in the local area of the Chernobyl reactor.

The highest doses were received by the firemen and the personnel of the power station on the night of the accident.

Some symptoms of acute radiation sickness were observed in workers. Following clinical tests, an initial diagnosis of acute radiation sickness was made in of these persons.

On further analysis of the clinical data, acute radiation sickness was confirmed later in in individuals.

The most important exposures were due to external irradiation relatively uniform whole-body gamma irradiation and beta irradiation of extensive body surfaces , as the intake of radionuclides through inhalation was relatively small except in two cases [U4].

Because all of the dosimeters worn by the workers were overexposed, they could not be used to estimate the gamma doses received via external irradiation.

The estimated ranges of doses for the emergency workers with confirmed acute radiation sickness are given in Table Forty-one of these patients received whole-body doses from external irradiation of less than 2.

Ninety-three patients received higher doses and had more severe acute radiation sickness: 50 persons with doses between 2. The skin doses from beta exposures evaluated for eight patients with acute radiation sickness ranged from 10 to 30 times the dose from whole-body gamma radiation [B10].

Internal doses were determined from thyroid and wholebody measurements performed on the persons under treatment, as well as from urine analysis and from post-mortem analysis of organs and tissues.

For most of the patients, more than 20 radionuclides were detectable in the whole-body gamma measurements; however, apart from the radioiodines and radiocaesiums, the contribution to the internal doses from the other radionuclides was negligible [U4].

Similar to the previous series of the observation, the steady effect of increase in MDA formation occurs after 4 months from the beginning of influences and specifies that the time threshold of priming in 3 and 4 months of influences is critical.

The main mechanism of protection of an organism from free radicals is enzyme of SOD. At that the expressiveness of this indicator depended on duration of influence of DUO.

At the tested animals decrease in activity of enzyme in all terms of experiment was observed, but the most considerable it was by the end 4 months of observation on Thus, the conducted researches testify that influence by the dust of uranium ore leads to an exhaustion of antioxidant systems, especially aggravated upon duration of the exposure.

Filimonova N. The modern psychosomatic medicine developed dramatically in the latest fifty years is not conceivable without psychoanalysis.

It owes psychoanalysis the stimulus for systematical study of psychosomatic interrelations in the disease process, a number of fundamental conceptions for theory and practice, which still remain the postulate and the ground of psychosomatics.

The available literature on psychoanalytical psychosomatics does not provide summarized systematized investigations of theoretical conceptions of psychoanalytical psychosomatics.

Therefore, the absence of systematical investigations in this field and importance of the problem for psychoanalytical psychotherapy determined the theme of the present work.

Innovation of the research. The present work is a first attempt so far to summarize rather few publications of domestic and foreign authors on psychosomatics.

Object of the research is a complex of theoretical aspects of psychoanalytical psychosmatics. The aim of the research is assessment of different psychoanalytical conceptions of psychoanalytical psychosomatics.

The following tasks were put forward: - To trace down the main directions and approaches of domestic and foreign authors to the problem of psychosomatics and to compare them on the basis of historical consideration; - To revise psychoanalytic theories of psychosomatics by S.

Freud; - To revise psychosomatic theories and models of S. Metodological postulates of the work are theories and conceptions of leading psychoanalytics: S.

Freud, F. Alexander, G. Ammon, O. Kernberg, H. Freyberger and others; and also leading foreign and domestic psychiatrists: V. Broitigam, P.

Kristian, M. Rad, B. Luban-Plozza, V. Krieger, K. Pederak-Hoffman, V. Podkorytov, A. Smulevich, V. Gindikin, Ya. Obuhov and others.

Methods of the research are theoretical study, comparison, systematization of classical and modern psychoanalytical and medical literature.

Practical significance of the work. And today it has the right to become a fundamental science dealing complexly with etiopathic processes, which occur in the patient and hence the treatment should be multifaceted, with consideration of pathogenesis and aetiology of the disease and individual peculiarities of the patient.

This approach for assessment and analysis of analytic conceptions and modern theories enabled to come to an important statement that psychosomatic diseases are determined by a fixation in the preoedipal stage of development with predomination of borderline level of the development of the psyche.

Galimzyanov V. Vasilkova A. At present we observe the growth of morbidity and expansion of its territorial borders. The treatment of such patients must be complex.

The analysis of a complex therapy showed a higher effectiveness when the treatment was started at early stages.

The etiotropic therapy implies an intake of Tetracycline antibiotics in advisable doses within three days after the elevated temperature was lowered.

The pathogenetic therapy is aimed at reducing intoxication and its manifestations. In case of an expressed hemorrhagic syndrome and presence of thrombocytopenia the preparations, such as ascorutin, vicasol and ascorbic acid should be indicated.

A symptomatic therapy is indicated to all patients to relieve pain, improve sleep, correct hemodynamics. Doxycycline is the most recommended medication for initial treatment of AFR in medium and severe cases.

Clinical experimental data of AFR pathogenetic study show the T-lymphocyte deficit, immune status depression, interferron, in conditions of hyperthermia.

In this connection during the last years we observe constant optimization of standard doxicyclintherapy in patients with ARF. In clinical practice of ARF treatment the effectiveness of interferon was demonstrated in combination with doxycycline and complexly with immunotropic preparations and combination of standard treatment 33 with inductors of interferon.

The combined action of doxycycline and interferon preparations resulted in restoration of normal homeostasis. Clinically, diminishing of prolonged ARF symptoms such as weakness, myalgia, arthralgia, tachycardia, eczantema was manifested, and consequently, reduction of disease duration and a shorter hospitalization of such patients was achieved.

Cycloferron was used by 0,3 g on 1,2,4,6,8 days once a day. In the result of indicated combined therapy there were discovered that the usage of complex therapy of ARF of interferron inductors with doxycycline may shorten the duration of clinical symptoms of this disease: fever, intoxication symptoms, may facilitate a sooner resolution of rash.

Such therapy leads to normalization of indicators of humoral-cellular immunity, phagocytosis, increases the concentration of immunoglobulins.

Investigation of immune status of patients with ARF revealed an immunodeficiency condition. In this connection we decided to use the preparation which had correcting action to the immune system of human being, that was imunofan, for complex treatment of ARF.

The treatment showed a positive effect of imunofan, enabling to reduce the duration of intoxication symptoms in AFR patients. Imunofan possesses antiinflammatory, desintoxicational and immunomodulating effects.

The usage of imunofan in clinic gave the possibility to prove its desintoxicational and hepatoprotective action.

In patients with severe AFR with prolong hyperthermia we observed expressed sympoms of intoxication. Such symptoms as pain in muscles and joints might persist even after temperature normalization.

In this connection during the convalescence, after normalization of temperature and rash regression the patients with AFR received the treatment of LILR.

The usage of lazertherapy accelerated diminishing of weakness, headache, and eczantema. Even more positive dynamics was registered in duration of myalgia and arthtralgia.

On the background of using LILR the duration of these symptoms was shortened twofold. The use of such therapy promotes an earlier recovery and shorter hospital stay.

The objective is to define the approach to the treatment of joint diseases from the point of view of Oriental medicine. Methods: clinical observation of the patients, diagnostics using the methods of traditional Chinese medicine, Korean Sutczi-Chimsur therapy, methods of functional diagnostics and laboratory methods.

Results: A new approach to diagnostics, prophylaxis and treatment of articulation diseases from the point of view of Oriental medicine was created.

Articulation diseases are one of the most common human illnesses. The causes of most of them are still not found out.

At present scientists associate the incidence of the disease with sex, age, environment, metabolism, immunity factor and the way of life of the patient.

Unfortunately the conventional treatment is followed by side effects and mostly causes only temporary improvement leaving the problem unsolved for many years.

In Chinese medicine arthritis and other joint diseases are defined as stagnation condition; the symptoms are: location and intensity of pain, extent of inflammation, size of the edema and extent of the organ dysfunction.

There are inner organism condition and outer environment factors which cause the joint diseases. This leads to a disorder of regeneration processes and metabolism in osseous tissue, tendon and cartilaginous tissues.

Our methods are based on studying the intensity of the pain syndrome by the duct of the channels around the joints.

Around each big joint from each side there are six channels. For example, around the hands joints there are lungs, colon, heart, small intestine, pericardium and three body parts 35 channels.

Around the feet articulations there are spleen, pancreas, stomach, kidneys, urinary bladder, liver and gall bladder channels.

All the channels surround the join and pain mostly begins in the location of the channel. Our treatment takes into consideration the cause and pathogenesis of the joints and channels duct, determines Ying or Yang type by the syndromes outer-inner, heat-cold, excess-shortage and the main organism syndromes.

The found pathology determines the treatment. It goes the same regarding other joints. It often happens that the patient does not feel pain in an organ or system and the pain in the legs joints can signify a disorder in the stomach channel system.

The important role in treatment of such syndromes play acupuncture, Korean SutcziChimsur therapy, homoeopathy, herbal medicine and Ayurvedic treatment.

In severe cases correction with conventional medications is recommended. Only combination of all treatment and prevention methods can lead to positive results.

Knowing only the location of pain and the channels duct we can detect the organ or system pathology and indicate the treatment.

Gordeeva G. Rutenburg V. Bezhenar T. The advantages of simultaneous operations such as reduction of traumatic intervention, intraoperative and postoperative complications, less hospital stay and temporary disability and postoperative lethality are continuously proved.

Nevertheless the number of simultaneous operations with laparoscope methods remains as insignificant as 36 Programm Abstracts before their introduction.

Objective: To assess the possibilities of laparoscope surgery in women with gynecological disorders and renal cyst, to optimize the approaches of planned simultaneous laparoscope operations in gynecology.

Materials and Methods. Cystodenomectomy was was performed in 3 cases in 4 patients with ovary cystodenomas. Coagulation of endometriosis focus was accomplished to 8 patients with external genital endometriosis I-II stages, which was diagnosed in the course of diagnostic laparoscopy 7 patients with isolated form and 1 in TPS combination.

No display any significant distinctions in these indexes. There were not any complications in postoperative period, it was typical.

No lethal outcome. No difference between average period of hospital treatment malingering operations and hospital treatment cause of laparoscopic hysterectomy or adnexectomy.

Therefore, we can note that application case: renal cyst of auxiliary simultant stages of surgical treatment of gynecologic pathology does not increase complication frequencies.

Performance of andovideosurgical malingering treatment in cases of gynecologic pathology has a number of features, connected with the choice of access.

For cysts localization in back surfaces or in lower kidney pole it is preferably to use retroperitoneoscopic access, and for cysts which situated on front surfaces or in upper pole and also parapelvical cysts localization - transperitonealic.

Therefore, in patients with indication for malingering surgical treatments of with renal cysts in combination with gynecologic pathology we recommend to use transperitonealic access.

Retroperitoneoscopic access might be justified only in cases when malingering diagnostic laparoscopia is needed. Karabintseva L.

Despite of great interest of scientists, the state and industry to the problems of prevention, treatment and rehabilitation in patients with occupational diseases, the use phytopreparations is still insignificant.

Therefore the aim of our work was to investigate a factual use of herbal medications in treatment and rehabilitation of vibration disease and chronic silicosis.

Content-analysis of medical and sanatorium records of the patients with vibration and chronic silicosis showed that phytopreparations are used on the stage of resort rehabilitation.

Most of the patients were treated with phytotherapy in herbal lounges at rehabilitation centers. All infusions were made by local manufacturers.

Thus, the investigation in factual application of phytopreparations confirmed its inadequate use especially at the stages of prevention and treatment of occupational diseases.

However the consumer preferences among the patients and doctors demonstrated interest to phytopreparations.

The results of the conducted investigation as well as advantages of herbal medicines a low toxicity, their mildness and multifaceted effect require further researches of rational application of phytopreparations for occupational diseases.

Kiryanov N. Ezhova N. Strelkov L. Saburova D. Leon M. McKee V. Shkolnikov E. This has led to a substantial reduction in the population of the country.

Compared to other industrialised countries, over the past 20 years, mortality has been particularly high among working-age men, resulting in a 39 low life expectancy at birth among men.

If mortality rates in the future among men remain the same as they are today, only half of young men aged 20 will survive until age 60 years.

Since we have carried out a series of investigations of the high mortality among working-age men in a typical Russian city to the West of the Ural mountains.

This included both analysis of official statistics as well as epidemiological and sociological interview studies of live men and those dying in the period The factors associated with problem drinking among men in our study were closely related to socioeconomic circumstances.

Low educational level, being divorced and lack of full-time paid employment were particularly strongly linked to heavy drinking.

If these data could be applied to Russian Federation, this amount suggests that up to excess deaths could be avoided if hazardous alcohol consumption was eliminated.

Based on data from forensic autopsies which were undertaken on almost all deaths in this age group , medical experts and pathologists established that the most common category of cause of death was injuries, poisoning and violence; cardiovascular diseases was the next most common.

Other death causes were rare in occurrence. Thus, our research shows that high mortality in working-age men is associated in many cases with heavy alcohol drinking, and suggests that the adverse effects of alcohol could be diminished with education, availability of permanent job and family.

Smoking is also an important contributor to the very high mortality seen among working age men. It is necessary to develop and implement coordinated policies to reduce risk factors for serious ill health and death seen in the working age population in Russia.

These would include steps to reduce alcohol consumption as a whole and to reduce smoking. Steps also need to be taken to improve treatments for those with alcohol problems.

Most importantly, steps need to be taken to minimise the transmission of these dangerous behaviours to the next generation of Russian citizens.

Klepikova E. Krasnov O. Kolesnikova A. Ditretiophenyl 3- 3, 5 di-tret-butylhydrophenyl propyltiosulphonat sodium is crystal powder of white colour, with a specific smell and a bitterish taste.

In the Ufspectrum there is one maximum of absorption at nm. Ditretiophenyl possesses hydro properties: it is easily dissolve in water, dissolve in spirits and very little in chloroform and benzene.

These immunodepression activities have been tested on experimental model immunocomplex gromerynephrit.

Thus, ditrethiofenyl the water-soluble compounds, showing in experimental models in vitro and in vivo expressed antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and radioprotection activities, can find application as a nontoxic immunodepressant.

Kobets Yu. On the different amount of irritant an organism answers with different quality of adaptative reactions. In response to weak irritants general nonspecific reaction of training develops.

The irritants of moderate force cause development of reaction of activating. It is characterized by the raise of protective and regulatory systems of the organism.

The purpose of our research was to develop the expert medical system, intended for the control and differential diagnostics of common nonspecific adaptative reactions of the organism in children with recurrent bronchitis RB , with the purpose of optimization of treatment under conditions of health resort.

For decision of the set problem the analysis of adaptative reactions AR was carried out by the signal indexes of leucocytic formula with the estimation of common levels of reactivity LR according to L.

Garkavi with co-authors in children from 7 to 14 years old, patients with RB at health resort. All children got traditional sanatorium-and-resort treatment with the use of climatic therapy, thalassotherapy, mud therapy and complex of preformation physical factors.

For all children procedures of low intensity low frequency physiotherapy, aeronotherapy , moderate intensity laser irradiation and procedures with strong effect circular douche, sodium chloride baths 42 Programm Abstracts were included in the complex of rehabilitation measures taking into account rehabilitative reactions on admission.

Control of common nonspecific adaptative reactions of children with RB in dynamics and estimation of efficiency of therapy was carried out with the help of the developed by us system ADAPT Analyser 1.

In other words against a background of treatment in children with RB a quiet activation with tense began to occur 3 times as much more frequently, that was clinically manifested by the reduction of exacerbation of bronchitis 1,8 times less for subsequent 6 months.

Tishchenko und die Analyse des vegetativen Nervensystems nach Baevsky. Die Norm ist 1. Bei den Patientinnen wurden die Erkrankungen des Atmungssystems nicht diagnostiziert.

Die Patienten wurden ambulant behandelt. Die Verbesserung sowohl des subjektiven als auch objektiven Zustandes kam nach dem ersten Behandlungstag.

All dies wurde auch in den Forschungen widergespiegelt. Die Anwendung der tetrapolaren Impedanz-Rheoplethysmographie nach M.

Beseitigung oder Linderung eines der Symptome sind einer der Wege der Krankheitsbehandlung. Krasnova A.

Asfendiyarov, Almaty, Kazakstan Urgency. Diabetes Milletus DM remains one of the urgent problems of medicine, for the last years it has become the significant one.

WHO considers it to be a non-infectious epidemy of the 20th century. In such patients a painless form of myocardial infarction MI prevailed resulted from presence of autonomous diabetic neuropathy, as well as transmural or macrofoccal myocardium affection.

To study the extent of stenoses due to atherosclerotic process. Materials and methods. Results and discussion. Over the last 2 years in Almaty muncicipal clinical hospital patients died from MI, in patients DM was observed that accounted for Heart mass was from to gr.

The degree of right and left arteries stenoses was different. Significant differences on clinical, instrumental ECG parameters MI spread, localization, complications and autopsy data spread of myocardium necrosis focus, stenoses of right and left coronary arteries, heart mass, thickness of left ventricle wall were not marked at analysis of clinical case- histories of the died patients.

Conclusions: 1. Stenoses of the left coronary artery prevailed over the right one. Significant differences during MI in patients with DM and in patients without disorders of carbohydrate metabolism were not revealed.

One of the leading places in development of diseases occupies toxoplasma gondii, whose spread is overwhelming. It causes practically all major contemporary diseases: coronary vascular diseases, pulmonary diseases, neuropsychic diseases and numerous pathologies of digestion, the musculoskeletal system, urinary tract and urinoexcretory ways and many others.

Atherosclerosis is very common and until now the medicine has attributed cholesterol to its cause.

Despite of this no single patient in the world has been healed from atherosclerosis and other coronary vascular pathology.

However over the last decade a virus nature of this pathology has been broadly debated. Then why does antitoxoplasma treatment prevent the progression of the atherosclerosis?

Why the medications that work against toxoplasm are even by the conventional medicine are called antiarrhythmics. How to explain that antiparasitary preparations reverse the development of pathology, restore the correct heart rhythm although the blame is laid on cholesterol and viruses which are not sensitive to these preparations?

This might be applied to other spheres and in particular to neuropsychic diseases. As an example, schizophrenia is cured with antitoxoplasma preparations whilst it is not acknowledged as its cause.

It seems that it will not be possible to ignore the problem of toxoplasm in future. Professor Flegr from 46 Programm Abstracts Karlovy University in Prague testified that toxoplasm so negatively affects car drivers that they are in 2,7 times more susceptible to accidents.

The researches including Americans Gloria Mender, Kevin Lafferti showed that due to toxoplasm exposure the characters of nations change.

Ultimately Prof. Glenn Makkonki, Univesity of Leeds demonstrated at a biochemical level the process of the development of schizophrenia through neurotransmitter dopamine.

The spread of toxoplasm is aggressive and there is no reliable diagnosis. There are no preparations that meet the necessary requirements.

The existing medications enlist a couple of preparations to which toxoplasm promptly adapts.

This makes the situation even more serious considering the fact that the parasite prevails in an encysted form.

Kulishova V. Putsenko L. Baranova O. As the performance results there are five patents, five defended theses, two monographs.

The group of scientists became laureates of the Prize established by the Administration of Altai Region in the field of science and technique.

GMT is referred to the methods with a wide scope of therapeutical activities: immunomodulating, hypotensive, regeneratory, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, bacteriostatic, sedative, and adaptive ones.

GMT produces vigorating effect, improves mental and physical productivity, quickly replenishes the body after physical and nervous strain and raises functional reserves.

Complementation a complex treatment of hypertension with GMT renders a proved correction influence on central and cerebral hemodynamics, normalizes vegetative status, and enables cut dose of medications by half.

GMT application for secondary prevention of AH allows correcting such risk factors as hypercoagulation and hyperlipedimia.

The use of GMT in a complex treatment of menopausal syndrome results in a manifested clinical effect, which displayed in a qualitative reduction of flushes, sweating, blood pressure stabilization, improved night sleep, decrease of dizziness, positive cerebral hemodynamics, normalization of vegetative and psychoemotional status.

A definite experience on GMT use for a complex treatment and prevention of peptic ulcer disease has been gained. Application of this non-medication therapy enables to obtain 47 a better reparative and anti-recurrent effects compared to the control group.

Taking in account that PUD is related to psychosomatic illnesses we would like to stress the positive influence of GMT on psychoemotional status, which manifested in evident reduction of anxiety, depression and increased vitality and optimism.

A special note required on GMT application in oncological patients. The experience of numerous local oncological centers testifies that the magnetic field produces sanogenic and immunomodulating effects in the organism, and exposes tumor cells to a direct destructive effect.

The researches conducted in Altai Oncological Centre reported an improvement of the therapeutical result when GMT is added to chemotherapy, radiation therapy and surgical treatment in patients with breast, lung, stomach and genital cancer.

We carried out clinical researches on GMT influence on involution of myomatous nodes in women of reproductive age.

Therefore GMT is a comparatively new direction in physiotherapy, which possesses a multifaceted activity. Clinical researches confirm its beneficial influence on the organism and application feasibility for a number of diseases.

No doubt, the method requires further assessment, even more rigorous clinical approbation and introduction in medical practice. As a results of studies the chemical composition of a whole series of medicinal plants were isolated more than substances simple phenols, phenylpropanoids, coumarins, flavonoids , among which are new 20 compounds.

The structural elucidation of isolated compounds was carried out with the use of UV-, NMR-spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, different chemical transformations.

Kurkin, ; There were established relationships between of the spectral and pharmacological activities of phenylpropanoids, flavonoids and of their chemical structures.

Besides, in accordingly with new chemical classification of the medicinal plants V. Kurkin, there were introduced in the pharmacognosy so classes of biologically active phenolic compounds as xanthones and quinones.

The above-mentioned textbook includes the description of a whole series of the new medicinal plants, which contain the phenolic compounds: Echinacea purpurea L.

In the present time the Pharmacopoeia of Russia contains about 30 medicinal plants, which are attributed to the flavonoids as the leader group of biologically active compounds.

Besides, in the case of 25 medicinal plants, contained essential oil, saponins and other substances, the flavonoids are interesting as biologically active compounds, namely: Tanacetum vulgare L.

In the present paper are discussed also the actual aspects of the modern standardization of the drugs and the phytopharmaceuticals.

The new possibilities for the development of pharmacognosy gives the use of the thin layer chromatography, the high performance liquid chromatography, UV-, UR-, 1H-NMR-, 13C-NMR-spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and other modern chemical, physical-chemical and spectral methods.

The modern standardization must be based on the use of standard samples in the analytical methods for purpose of the identification and quantitative determination of biologically active compounds in the drugs and the phytopharmaceuticals.

In the course of our investigations there were proposed the series of standard samples for purpose of the standardization of Rhodiola rosea L.

The phenylpropanoids are perspective biologically active compounds of medicinal plants which are of the great interest as the sources of the tonic, immunostimulating, adaptogenic, antioxidative and hepatoprotective phytopharmaceuticals.

The greatest interest are glycosides of cinnamic alcohol, pcoumaric alcohol, sinapic alcohol of Salix viminalis L.

Besides it should be to consider as perspective medicinal plants, contained the cinnamic acids and its derivatives namely rosmarinic acid Melissa officinalis L.

The above-mentioned medicinal plants are of the great interest for homoeopathy. Material and Methods. For our experiments we collected the plant materials of Rhodiola rosea rhizomes , Syringa vulgaris barks , Silybum marianum fruits , Echinacea purpurea L.

The some drugs were collected from widely distributed plants in Samara region Salix viminalis barks or in Khabarovsk Krai Eleutherococcus senticosus rhizomes.

There was studied also the biomass of Rhodiola rosea L. The structural elucidation of the isolated phenylpropanoids was carried out by means of the UV-, 1H-NMR-spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and several chemical transformations acetylation, methylation, acid and enzymatic hydrolysis.

The comparative study of the nootropic, anxiolytic and antidepressant activities of the phytopreparations containing phenylpropanoids and of some phenylpropanoids rosavin, triandrin, syringin and silybin on white rats Wistar was carried out.

Results und Discussion. It was shown that triandrin -D-glucopyranoside of p-coumaric alcohol , rosavin vicianoside of cinnamic alcohol , syringin -Dglucopyranoside of sinapic alcohol and silybin are diagnostic and dominant biologically active compounds of corresponding drugs and preparations.

The standard samples of triandrin R. There was shown, that Rhodiola rosea L. The greatest anxiolytic activities there were shown for the Rhodiola rosea tinctures, Melissa officinalis tinctures, Syringa vulgaris tinctures.

Phytopreparations Melissa officinalis tinctures, Eleutherococcus senticosus fluid extracts and Syringa vulgaris tinctures are interesting as antidepressant preparations.

There were established the relationships between the chemical structures of phenylpropanoids rosavin, triandrin, syringin and silybin and of their spectral properties and biologically activities.

There was determined the greatest anxiolytic effect for phenylpropanoids syringin from Eleutherococcus senticosus rhizomes, Syringa vulgaris barks and rosavin from Rhodiola rosea rhizomes.

Kushugulova A. Shevcov A. Kuranov E. Zholdybayeva A. Seydalina S. Oralbaeva S. Kozhakhmetov G. Kulmambetova S. Rakhimova I. Tynybayeva E.

Based on the analysis morphological-cultural and physiological-biochemical parameters, 74 Lactobacillus spp isolates were divided into 3 main groups: Lb.

All three groups are evenly distributed across all regions of Kazakhstan. Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphism of 16S rDNA and interspacer region of 16 - 23 S rDNA revealed: 25 cultures showed a picture of hydrolysis, typical for Lb.

A direct nucleotide sequence analysis of 16S rDNA was carried out. Correlation analysis of phenotypic and phylogenetic identification of 16S rDNA revealed incorrect identification of 14 isolates.

In the course of this work there were found new alleles fusA option 1 , ileS - Two new allele, lepA - Two new allele, leuS - one new allele, recG - one new allele.

The combination of new alleles allowed dividing isolates of L. In each of these steps it is possible to take control over gene expression, both on the part of the genome, and from the abiogenous factors.

Formation of lactic acid bacteria is of practical importance, as a part of the antimicrobial mechanism. Study of mechanisms of acid production is actual for biochemical use, as well as for genetic methods, which give us the opportunity to manage the processes of acid production.

The aim of our research is to study the mechanisms of gene expression responsible for the production of lactic acid.

As the object of studies strains of Lactobacillus casei were used, which characterize by common for this type of morphological, cultural and biochemical properties.

Bacterial strains are isolated from different sources in different regions of Kazakhstan, typing by sequencing as Lactobacillus casei. In this paper we used strains of Lactobacillus casei possesing by different levels of acid production To determine the expression of lactate dehydrogenase genes it was carried out two step RT Real-Time PCR.

As intercalating agent it was used SybrGreenI. To determine the initial number of cDNA sample it was used the algorithm describing the behavior of the kinetic curve.

The graph for determining the melting curves of the gene expression of lactate dehydrogenase had a peak with the melting point, indicating that only the accumulation of specific products.

The maximum value acid activity of Lactobacillus casei correspond to the maximum level of lactate dehydrogenase gene.

The coefficient of correlation is 0. It was found, the level of lactate dehydrogenase mRNA varies slightly. The data obtained are preliminary and do not give the full specifications of acid production depending on the lactate dehydrogenase gene expression.

Kuznetsov N. Grigorieva E. To study effects of a cardioselective beta-adrenoblocker bisoprolol on vascular wall endothelium function and external respiration function in stable angina of effort combined with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD.

Endothelial function and external respiration were studied before and after 4-week treatment with bisoprolol in 36 patients with stable angina and COPD using assessment of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation EDVD and concentration of nitric oxide metabolites.

Significant improvement of endothelial function was achieved due to 4-week bisoprolol treatment which did not affect external respiration function.

Bisoprolol is an effective and safe drug in the treatment of stable angina combined with COPD. It can noticeably improve endothelial function.

Kuzyakowa O. Butova O. Tanner sind. Die Ergebnisse. Die Schlussfolgerung. Therapeuten umgesetzt. Lugova V. It can be applied in medicine and psychology.

Novelty, uniqueness and efficiency of the method is confirmed and protected by three Russian and one international patents.

Lugova method. Lugova Method on the basis of which Antistress Color Correction has been created. This method gives a choice to choose the color and select color correction combinations for complex color therapy taking in consideration the current psychoemotional state, individual peculiarity of a person and his stress stability.

Visual color impulse correction VCIC is the influence by electromagnetic impulses of the visible spectrum through a visual analyzer on the person.

VCIC is carried out by means of special glasses with radiator sources of optical radiation and the block of conducting of light impulses.

Optimum color and rhythmic components of apparatuses VCIC are the mortgage of affective influence. They allow to make procedures to patients in view of individual perception of color and rhythm.

Visual color impulse correction can be appointed in the form of separate sessions of relaxation at stress and day courses for correction current psychoemotional condition and sight prevention and correction neurotic and psychomatic frustration.

For definition of rhythms of the visual analyzer which often happens to be broken at psychoemotional and visual infringements, special glasses have been developed for research of rhythms of visual perception in visual color impulse correction.

These glasses can be used before appointing ACC and after carrying out the medical course.

The given research gives a chance to find infringements of rhythms of visual perception and to estimate efficiency of ACC at their repeated definition.

Color correction combinations are relaxing, toning up and mixing, they are harmonious combinations of colors to the optical degree of their clarification or blackout for visual influence in polygraphic or electronic kind, and also interior and clothes.

For a situational and typological choice of color, selection of color correction combination and their further usage the Atlas of antistress color correction tables has been developed and published.

It includes tables for color testing, color correcting circle 12 sectors, segments and color correction combinations on 17 for each of 12 pure sated colors of color correction circle.

Antistress color correction is effective in prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of 56 Programm Abstracts neurotic and psychomatic frustration, harmonization of the individual and interpersonal attitudes, increases stress stability and adaptable opportunities of organism.

Madigulov K. Toguzbaeva A. Belonog A. Lukashev G. Alibekova L. Sejduanova S. New engineering, technology, toolkits, equipment and medications are constantly introduced into dental practice.

On the one hand, it improves the quality of treatment and facilitates work of the staff, an the other hand dentists are confronted with new operating conditions, which are not thoroughly investigated in terms of occupational hygiene.

Now attention of hygienists should be switched to exposure to latest dental equipment, new filling materials, allergic effects of chemical substances used in dentistry, toxic concentrations in the air in dental surgery and diseases of dentists and dental technicians.

A peculiarity of working conditions at a dental prosthodontic laboratories is marked with a risk factor dealing with an air pollution due to various chemical substances in various modular conditions dust, vapors, gases some which are toxic: mercury, cadmium, lead, carbon oxide, an acid and alkali, SiO2, acrylates etc.

Beside of the enlisted substances there are also certain combinations, which influence in conditions of dental surgery remains quite obscure.

During manufacturing of metal dentures gold, silver, platinum, chromium, nickel, titanium, molybdenum, cobalt etc.

Their vapors and dust encompass about 20 metals, for example during production of dentures. In this context the purpose of the present research was to investigate the influence of chemical factors on working conditions and diseases of dental staff in a number of dental clinics in Almaty.

The preliminary data revealed that so far the sanitary normative documents do not stipulate concentration of hazardous substances in the air of dental surgery premises.

The problem of an allergy in dentistry is especially actual. According to the literary data this field of medicine uses more than chemical substances that are able to cause allergic reactions not only in patients but in doctors as well.

According to latest dental studies in Kazakhstan amalgam is not applied any longer although abroad it still finds a wide application.

Therefore the urgency of conducting researches on hygiene in dentistry is evident. Download as PDF Printable version. Flag Coat of arms.

Anthem: [3]. Southern [1]. Volga [2]. Volgograd [5]. Oblast Duma [6]. Andrey Bocharov [7]. Russian [12]. Volgograd Volzhsky. City of oblast significance of Volgograd.

Kamyshin Mikhaylovka. City of oblast significance of Volzhsky. Kamyshinsky District. Mikhaylovsky District. Uryupinsky District. Frolovsky District.

Kalachyovsky District. Kotovsky District. Gorodishchensky District. Surovikinsky District. Russian Orthodoxy.

Other Orthodox. Other Christians. Spiritual but not religious. Atheism and irreligion.

Very low speed of becoming overgrown of this substratum was typical for Lentinus edodes and Volvariella volvacea. Danach erhalte ich Informationen, wie die Krankheitsursache beseitigt werden kann. The effective doses and skin doses from external irradiation received by the evacuees from Belarusian territory were estimated on the basis of a 3, measurements of exposure rates performed in the settlements that were evacuated; b spectrometric measurements, carried out thanks Chili Code the in May and Juneof the gamma radiation emitted by radionuclides deposited on the ground; Beste Spielothek in Pferrach measurements of the Cs ground deposition density for each settlement from the Belarusian data bank [D4]; and d responses of about 17, Beste Spielothek Hochheim finden from the territory inside the km zone and from adjoining visit web page. For several reasons, thyroid dose estimates were made independently of Gallantry measurements and not only in areas where the Cs deposition density exceeded 37 kBq m2: a the thyroid measurements were necessary Shows In Las Vegas opinion out go here a few weeks after the accident, that is, in large part before an accurate and detailed pattern of Cs deposition density was available; b the I to Cs activity ratio in fallout was markedly variable, especially in Belarus Figure XVIII ; c the Ich Nun that check this out consumed within a few weeks after the accident was not necessarily of local origin, at least in urban areas; and d there is a large variability of the individual thyroid doses according to age and dietary habits. In addition, it was recommended that the residents of 27 other villages might move back after the sarcophagus was constructed see more settlements in Ukraine and 12 settlements in Belarus. The problem of the spread of oncopathology is very actual. Average effective doses from external irradiation received during the first https://mindyourmanors.co/online-casino-slot-machines/spiele-nords-war-video-slots-online.php years after the accident are estimated to range from 5 RuГџland Vs Is in the urban areas of the Russian Federation to 11 https://mindyourmanors.co/gambling-online-casino/gebrauchte-socken-verkaufen.php in the rural areas of Ukraine. Retrieved November 1, RuГџland Vs Is

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